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Lewis : confundo

confundo, confundo, fūdi, fūsum, 3, v. a. To pour, mingle, or mix together (class. in prose and poetry). Prop.: unā multa jura (cocos), Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 120; cf.: jus confusum sectis herbis, Hor. S. 2, 4, 67: (venenum) in poculo, cum ita confusum esset ut secerni nullo modo posset, Cic. Clu. 62, 173; Dig. 6, 1, 3, § 2: cum ignis oculorum cum eo igne, qui est ob os offusus, se confudit et contulit, Cic. Univ. 14: cumque tuis lacrimis lacrimas confundere nostras, Ov. H. 2, 95: confundere crebroque permiscere mel, acetum, oleum, Plin. 29, 3, 11, § 50: omnia arenti ramo (Medea), Ov. M. 7, 278: (Alpheus) Siculis confunditur undis, mingles, Verg. A. 3, 696: mixtum flumini subibat mare, Curt. 9, 9, 7: (cornua cervi contrita) pulvereae confusa farinae, Ov. Med. Fac. 61: aes auro, Plin. 34, 2, 3, § 5.

Meton. In gen., to mingle, unite, join, combine (rare): (decorum) totum illud quidem est cum virtute confusum, sed mente cogitatione distinguitur, Cic. Off. 1, 27, 95; so, vera cum falsis, id. Ac. 2, 19, 61: est id quidem in totam orationem confundendum, id. de Or. 2, 79, 322: vis quaedam sentiens quae est toto confusa mundo, id. Div. 1, 52, 118: sermones in unum, Liv. 7, 12, 14; cf. id. 40, 46, 13: duo populi in unum confusi, id. 1, 23, 2: diversum confusa genus panthera camelo ( = camelopardalis, the giraffe), Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 195: rusticus urbano confusus, id. A. P. 213; cf.: quinque continuos dactylos, Quint. 9, 4, 49: subjecta sibi vocalis in unum sonum coalescere et confundi nequiret, id. 1, 7, 26.—Of bringing together in speech: cuperem equidem utrumque (una dijudicare), sed est difficile confundere, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 23; cf. id. Brut. 26, 100.—Poet.: proelia cum aliquo, Hor. C. 1, 17, 23 al.—More freq., Esp., with the idea of confounding, disarranging, to confound, confuse, jumble together, bring into disorder: an tu haec ita confundis et perturbas, ut quicumque velit, quod velit, quo modo velit possit dedicare? Cic. Dom. 49, 127: omnis corporis atque animi sensus, Lucr. 2, 946; cf. id. 2, 439: aëra per multum confundi verba necesse'st Et conturbari vocem, id. 4, 558: confusa venit vox inque pedita, id. 4, 562 sq.: censeo omnis in oratione esse quasi permixtos et confusos pedes, Cic. Or. 57, 195: particulae primum confusae postea in ordinem adductae a mente divinā, id. Ac. 2, 37, 118: signa et ordines peditum atque equitum, Liv. 9, 27, 10: jura gentium, id. 4, 1, 2: priora, Quint. 10, 5, 23: ordinem disciplinae, Tac. H. 1, 60; cf.: ordinem militiae, id. ib. 2, 93: lusum, Suet. Claud. 33: annum (together with conturbare), id. Aug. 31 et saep.: foedus, to violate ( συγχέειν, Hom. Il. 4, 269), Verg. A. 5, 496; 12, 290: summa imis, Curt. 8, 8, 8: imperium, promissa, preces confundit in unum, mingles together, Ov. M. 4, 472: jura et nomina, id. ib. 10, 346: fasque nefasque, id. ib. 6, 585: in chaos, id. ib. 2, 299: mare caelo, Juv. 6, 283 (cf.: caelum terris miscere, id. 2, 25): ora fractis in ossibus, i. e. to disfigure the features, make them undistinguishable, Ov. M. 5, 58; Sen. Troad. 1117; cf.: omnia corporis lineamenta, Petr. 105, 10; Just. 3, 5, 11; and vultus, Luc. 2, 191; 3, 758; Stat. Th. 2, 232: oris notas, Curt. 8, 3, 13: si irruptione fluminis fines agri confudit inundatio, Dig. 19, 2, 31: ossa Non agnoscendo confusa reliquit in ore, Ov. M. 12, 251: vultum Lunae, to cloud, obscure, id. ib. 14, 367.—Of disordered health: neque apparet, quod corpus confuderit, Cels. 3, 5, 3.

Trop., of intellectual confusion, to disturb, disconcert, confound, perplex (freq. after the Aug. per.; perh. not in Cic.): audientium animos, etc., Liv. 45, 42, 1; 34, 50, 1: cum confusa memoria esset, id. 5, 50, 6: nos (fulmina), Quint. 8, 3, 5; Plin. Ep. 3, 10, 2: me gravi dolore (nuntius), id. ib. 5, 5, 1; Quint. 1, 12, 1: intellectum, Plin. 21, 18, 70, § 117: inmitem animum imagine tristi, Tac. H. 1, 44: Alexander pudore confusus, Curt. 7, 7, 23: illum ingens confundit honos inopinaque turbat gloria, Stat. Th. 8, 283; Juv. 7, 68: diligentiam monitoris confundit multitudo, Col. 1, 9, 7.

To diffuse, suffuse, spread over (rare). Prop.: cibus in eam venam, quae cava appellatur, confunditur, diffuses itself, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 137: vinum in ea (vasa), Col. 12, 28 fin.: cruorem in fossam, Hor. S. 1, 8, 28.

Poet., to throw in great numbers: tela per foramina muri, Sil. 14, 333.

Trop.: aliquid in totam orationem, Cic. de Or. 2, 79, 322: vim quandam sentientem atque divinam, quae toto confusa mundo sit, id. Div. 2, 15, 35: rosa ingenuo confusa rubore, suffused with, etc., Col. poët. 10, 260.—Hence, confūsus, a, um, P. a. (acc. to I. B. 2.), brought into disorder, confused, perplexed, disorderly (class. in prose and poetry): ruina mundi, Lucr. 6, 607; cf. natura, id. 6, 600: vox, id. 4, 562; 4, 613; cf.: oratio confusa, perturbata, Cic. de Or. 3, 13, 50: stilus, Quint. 1, 1, 28: verba, Ov. M. 2, 666; 12, 55; 15, 606: suffragium, Liv. 26, 18, 9 Drak. ad loc. (cf.: confusio suffragiorum, Cic. Mur. 23, 47): confusissimus mos, Suet. Aug. 44: clamor, Liv. 30, 6, 2.—With abl.: ipse confusus animo, Liv. 6, 6, 7; cf. id. 35, 35, 18: maerore, id. 35, 15, 9: eodem metu, Quint. 1, 10, 48: somnio, Suet. Caes. 7: irā, pudore, Curt. 7, 7, 23; cf. Ov. H. 21, 111; id. Tr. 3, 1, 81: fletu, Petr. 134, 6: turbā querelarum, Just. 32, 2, 3 al.: ex recenti morsu animi, Liv. 6, 34, 8.—Absol.: Masinissa ex praetorio in tabernaculum suum confusus concessit, Liv. 30, 15, 2: nunc onusti cibo et vino perturbata et confusa cernimus, Cic. Div. 1, 29, 60; Petr. 74, 10; 91, 1 al.: confusus atque incertus animi, Liv. 1, 7, 6: rediit confuso voltu, id. 41, 15, 1; Ov. Tr. 3, 5, 11: ore confuso, Curt. 6, 7, 18; cf.: confusior facies, Tac. A. 4, 63: pavor confusior, Plin. 7, prooem. 1, § 5.

Hence, confūsē, adv., confusedly, without order, disorderly (several times in Cic.; elsewh. rare; not in Quint.): confuse et permiste dispergere aliquid, Cic. Inv. 1, 30, 49: loqui, id. Fin. 2, 9, 27; cf.: confuse varieque sententias dicere, Gell. 14, 2, 17: agere, Cic. N. D. 3, 8, 19: utraque res conjuncte et confuse comparata est, Auct. her. 4, 47, 60: universis mancipiis constitutum pretium, in the lump, Dig. 21, 1, 36.—* Comp.: confusius acta res est, Cic. Phil. 8, 1, 1.—Sup. not in use.