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fallo, fallo, fĕfelli, falsum, 3 (archaic inf. praes. pass. fallier, Pers. 3, 50; perf. pass. fefellitus sum, Petr. Fragm. 61, MSS.), v. a. Sanscr. sphal, sphul, to waver; Gr. σφάλλω, ἀ-σφαλής, to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat, disappoint (freq. and class.; syn.: decipio, impono, frustror, circumvenio, emungo, fraudo). In gen. Of living objects: T. Roscius non unum rei pecuniariae socium fefellit, verum novem homines honestissimos ejusdem muneris, etc. ... induxit, decepit, destituit, omni fraude et perfidia fefellit, Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116 sq.; so, aliquem dolis, Ter. And. 3, 2, 13; cf. id. Heaut. 3, 1, 61: senem, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 43: referam gratiam, atque eas itidem fallam, ut ab illis fallimur, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 93: tu illum fructu fallas, Poët. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73: id ipsum sui fallendi causa milites ab hostibus factum existimabant, Caes. B. G. 7, 50, 2: tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco Inventum, Verg. G. 1, 139; cf. Ov. M. 15, 474: is enim sum, nisi me forte fallo, qui, etc., Cic. Phil. 12, 8, 21: num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, verum dies? id. Cat. 1, 3, 7: nisi me fallit animus, id. Rosc. Am. 17, 48; cf.: neque eum prima opinio fefellit, Caes. B. C. 3, 67, 3: ne spes eum fallat, Cic. Fam. 1, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 10, 4: si in hominibus eligendis spes amicitiae nos fefellerit, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 28: in quo cum eum opinio fefellisset, Nep. Ages. 3, 5: nisi forte me animus fallit, Sall. C. 20, 17: nisi memoria me fallit, fails me, Gell. 20, p. 285 Bip.: nisi me omnia fallunt, Cic. Att. 8, 7, 1; cf.: omnia me fallunt, nisi, etc., Sen. Ep. 95 med.: nisi quid me fallit, Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 6; cf.: si quid nunc me fallit in scribendo, id. ib. 3, 5, 4: dominum sterilis saepe fefellit ager, Ov. A. A. 1, 450: certe hercle hic se ipsus fallit, non ego, Ter. And. 3, 2, 15: tam libenter se fallunt, quam si una fata decipiunt, Sen. Brev. Vit. 11, 1: cum alios falleret, se ipsum tamen non fefellit, Lact. 1, 22, 5.

Pass. in mid. force, to deceive one's self, be deceived, to err, be mistaken: errore quodam fallimur in disputando, Cic. Rep. 3, 35: qua (spe) possumus falli: deus falli qui potuit? id. N. D. 3, 31, 76: memoriā falli, Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 118: jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest, Verg. A. 5, 49; Cic. Att. 4, 17, 1; 16, 6, 2: ni fallor, Ov. F. 4, 623; Lact. 2, 19, 1; cf.: ordinis haec virtus erit et venus, aut ego fallor, Hor. A. P. 42.—With object-clause: dicere non fallar, quo, etc., Luc. 7, 288: quamquam haut falsa sum, nos odiosas haberi, Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 4; cf.: id quam facile sit mihi, haud sum falsus, id. Men. 5, 2, 3; Ter. And. 4, 1, 23; Sall. J. 85, 20: neque ea res falsum me habuit, did not deceive me, id. ib. 10, 1: ut falsus animi est! Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 43.

Of inanim. or abstr. objects: promissum, not to fulfil, Curt. 7, 10, 9: fidem hosti datam fallere, to violate, break, betray, deceive, Cic. Off. 1, 13, 39: quodsi meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, id. Cat. 4, 11, 23; cf. id. de Or. 1, 1, 2: non fallam opinionem tuam, id. Fam. 1, 6 fin.; cf. Caes. B. C. 3, 86 fin.: imperium, to fail to execute, Plin. 7, 37, 38, § 125: cum lubrica saxa vestigium fallerent, betrayed, Curt. 4, 9.—Poet.: tu faciem illius Falle dolo, imitate deceptively, assume, Verg. A. 1, 684: sua terga nocturno lupo, i. e. to hide, conceal, Prop. 4, 5, 14: casses, retia, to shun, avoid, Ov. H. 20, 45; 190.

Absol.: neque quo pacto fallam ... Scio quicquam, Caecil. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29 fin.: cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur, Cic. Off. 1, 13, 41: ea (divinatio) fallit fortasse nonnumquam, id. Div. 1, 14, 25: non in sortitione fallere, id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132: in ea re, Nep. Them. 7, 2; Cels. 7, 26, 2: ne falleret bis relata eadem res, Liv. 29, 35, 2: ut, si quid possent, de induciis fallendo impetrarent, Caes. B. G. 4, 13, 5: germinat et numquam fallentis termes olivae, Hor. Epod. 16, 45: plerumque sufflati atque tumidi (oratores) fallunt pro uberibus, Gell. 7, 14, 5.

Impers.: fallit (me) I deceive myself, I mistake, am mistaken: sed nos, nisi me fallit, jacebimus, Cic. Att. 14, 12, 2; cf.: nisi me propter benevolentiam forte fallebat, id. Cael. 19, 45; id. Sest. 50, 106: nec eum fefellit, id. Off. 2, 7, 25: vide, ne te fallat, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 25. And cf. under II. B. 2. In partic. To deceive in swearing, to swear falsely: is jurare cum coepisset, vox eum defecit in illo loco: SI SCIENS FALLO, Cic. Fam. 7, 1, 2; cf.: lapidem silicem tenebant juraturi per Jovem haec verba dicentes: SI SCIENS FALLO, TVM ME DISPITER, etc., Paul. ex Fest. s. v. lapidem, p. 115 Müll.: si sciens fefellisset, Plin. Pan. 64, 3; cf. Liv. 21, 45, 8; Prop. 4, 7, 53: expedit matris cineres opertos Fallere, i. e. to swear falsely by the ashes of your mother, Hor. C. 2, 8, 10.

With respect to one's knowledge or sight, for the more usual latēre: to lie concealed from, to escape the notice, elude the observation of a person (so in Cic., Sall., and Caes. for the most part only impers., v. 2. infra). With acc.: neque enim hoc te, Crasse, fallit, quam multa sint et quam varia genera dicendi, Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 255: tanto silentio in summum evasere, ut non custodes solum fallerent, sed, etc., Liv. 5, 47, 3: nec fefellit veniens ducem, id. 2, 19, 7; Curt. 7, 6, 4; cf.: quin et Atridas duce te (Mercurio) ... Priamus ... Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae Castra fefellit, Hor. C. 1, 10, 16: quos fallere et effugere est triumphus, id. ib. 4, 4, 52: Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem Fallere testa, id. ib. 3, 14, 20; Suet. Caes. 43: nec te Pythagorae fallant arcana, Hor. Epod. 15, 21; id. Ep. 1, 6, 45: nec quicquam eos, quae terra marique agerentur, fallebat, Liv. 41, 2, 1 Drak.: ut plebem tribunosque falleret judicii rescindendi consilium initum, id. 4, 11, 4: tanta celeritate, ut visum fallant, Plin. 9, 50, 74, § 157: oculos littera fallit, cannot be distinctly read, Ov. A. A. 3, 627.

With acc. and inf.: neutros fefellit hostes appropinquare, Liv. 31, 33, 8 Weissenb. ad loc.—Mid. with gen.: nec satis exaudiebam, nec sermonis fallebar tamen, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 55.

Absol., to escape notice, be unseen, remain undiscovered: speculator Carthaginiensium, qui per biennium fefellerat, Romae deprehensus, Liv. 22, 33, 1; 25, 9, 2: spes fallendi, resistendive, si non falleret, of remaining unnoticed, id. 21, 57, 5: non fefellere ad Tifernum hostes instructi, id. 10, 14, 6.—So with part. perf., Liv. 42, 64, 3; 23, 19, 11.—With part. pres.: ne alio itinere hostis falleret ad urbem incedens, i. e. arrive secretly, λανθάνοι προσιών, Liv. 8, 20, 5; cf. id. 5, 47, 9; Verg. A. 7, 350: nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit, i. e. has remained unnoticed, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 10: fallere pro aliquo, to pass for, Gell. 7, 14: bonus longe fallente sagitta, Verg. A. 9, 572.

Impers.: fallit (me), it is concealed from me, unknown to me, I do not know, am ignorant of (for the most part only with negatives or in negative interrogations), constr. with subject-clause: non me fefellit: sensi, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 64: num me fefellit, hosce id struere? Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; cf.: in lege nulla esse ejusmodi capita, te non fallit, Cic. Att. 3, 23, 4: nec me animi fallit, etc., Lucr. 1, 136; 5, 97: quem fallit? who does not know? Plin. 2, 103, 106, § 233: neque vero Caesarem fefellit, quin, etc., Caes. B C. 3, 94, 3.

To cause any thing (space, time, etc.) not to be observed or felt, to lighten any thing difficult, or to appease, silence any thing disagreeable, to beguile (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): medias fallunt sermonibus horas Sentirique moram prohibent, Ov. M. 8, 652: jam somno fallere curam, Hor. S. 2, 7, 114: Fallebat curas aegraque corda labor, Ov. Tr. 3, 2, 16; cf. dolores, id. ib. 5, 7, 39: luctum, Val. Fl. 3, 319: molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, Hor. S. 2, 2, 12; Ov. M. 6, 60; Plin. 27, 7, 28, § 49.—Prov.: fallere credentem non est operosa puellam Gloria, Ov. H. 2, 63.—Hence, falsus, a, um, P. a., deceptive, pretended, feigned, deceitful, spurious, false (syn.: adulterinus, subditus, subditicius, spurius). Adj.: testes aut casu veri aut malitia falsi fictique esse possunt, Cic. Div. 2, 11, 27; cf.: falsum est id totum, neque solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum, id. Rep. 2, 15: ementita et falsa plenaque erroris, id. N. D. 2, 21, 55: pro re certa spem falsam domum retulerunt, id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; cf.: spe falsa atque fallaci, id. Phil. 12, 2, 7; so, spes, id. Sull. 82, 91: falsa et mendacia visa, id. Div. 2, 62, 127; cf.: falsa et inania visa, id. ib.: falsum et imitatione simulatum, id. de Or. 2, 45, 189; cf. id. Phil. 11, 2, 5: argumentum, id. Inv. 1, 48, 90: qui falsas lites falsis testimoniis Petunt, Plaut. Rud. prol. 13: reperiuntur falsi falsimoniis, id. Bacch. 3, 6, 12: ambitio multos mortales falsos fieri subegit, Sall. C. 10, 5 Kritz.: pater (opp. verus), a supposed father, Ov. M. 9, 24; cf. id. ib. 1, 754: falsi ac festinantes, Tac. A. 1, 7: suspectio, Enn. ap. Non. 511, 5: nuntius, Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175: rumores, Caes. B. G. 6, 20, 2: poena falsarum et corruptarum litterarum, Cic. Fl. 17, 39; cf.: falsas esse litteras et a scriba vitiatas, Liv. 40, 55, 1: falsarum tabularum rei, Suet. Aug. 19: fama, Cic. Lael. 4, 15: appellatio, Quint. 7, 3, 5: sententiae, id. 8, 5, 7: crimina, Hor. C. 3, 7, 14; terrores, id. Ep. 2, 1, 212: opprobria, i. e. undeserved, id. ib. 1, 16, 38; cf. honor, id. ib. 39: falsi Simoëntis ad undam, i. e. fictitious (simulati), Verg. A. 3, 302; cf.: falsi sequimur vestigia tauri (i. e. Jovis), Val. Fl. 8, 265: vultu simulans Haliagmona, Stat. Th. 7, 739: ita ceteros terruere, ut adesse omnem exercitum trepidi ac falsi nuntiarent, Tac. H. 2, 17: ne illi falsi sunt qui divorsissumas res pariter expectant, deceived, mistaken, Sall. J. 85, 20; cf.: falsus utinam vates sim, Liv. 21, 10, 10; so, vates, id. 4, 46, 5.—Comp. (rare): quanto est abjectior et falsior ista (theologia), Aug. Civ. D. 7, 5 fin.: nihil est hominum inepta persuasione falsius, Petr. 132; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 92, 11 Müll.—Sup.: id autem falsissimum est, Col. 1, 6, 17.

With gen.: Felix appellatur Arabia, falsi et ingrati cognominis, Plin. 12, 18, 41, § 82.

False, counterfeit, spurious, = adulterinus (late Lat.): moneta, Cod. Th. 9, 21, 9.

As subst. falsus, i, m., a liar, deceiver: Spurinnam ut falsum arguens, a false prophet, Suet. Caes. 81 fin.; id. Tib. 14.

falsum, i, n., falsehood, fraud: ex falsis verum effici non potest, Cic. Div. 2, 51, 106; cf.: veris falsa remiscet, Hor. A. P. 151: vero distinguere falsum, id. Ep. 1, 10, 29: falsum scripseram, Cic. Att. 7, 14, 2; Quint. 7, 2, 53: ex illa causa falsi, i. e. of fraud, Dig. 48, 10 (De lege Cornelia de falsis), 1; v. the whole title: acclinis falsis animus, Hor. S. 2, 2, 6: nec obstitit falsis Tiberius, Tac. A. 2, 82: simulationum falsa, id. ib. 6, 46 et saep.—Adverb.: telisque non in falsum jactis, i. e. not at random, with effect, Tac. A. 4, 50 fin.: jurare falsum, Ov. Am. 3, 3, 11.—Adv., untruly, erroneously, unfaithfully, wrongly, falsely; in two forms, falso and false. falso: eho mavis vituperari falso, quam vero extolli? Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 21 sq.; cf. id. Trin. 1, 2, 173; so opp. vero, Curt. 5, 2, 2: ei rei dant operam, ut mihi falso maledicatur, Cato ap. Charis. p. 179 P.: falso criminare, Enn. ap. Non. 470, 16: neque me perpetiar probri Falso insimulatam, id. Am. 3, 2, 7; 21; cf.: non possum quemquam insimulare falso, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107: falso memoriae proditum, id. de Imp. Pomp. 14, 41: cum Tarquinius ... vivere falso diceretur, id. Rep. 2, 21; cf.: adesse ejus equites falso nuntiabantur, Caes. B. C. 1, 14, 1: cum utrumque falso fingerent, Liv. 42, 2: falso in me conferri, Cic. Fam. 5, 5, 2: aliquem falso occidere, i. e. by mistake, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 179 P.; cf.: ut miseri parentes quos falso lugent, vivere sciant, Liv. 34, 32, 13; and: falso lamentari eas Darium vivum, Curt. 3, 12: falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum, Sall. J. 1: falso plurima volgus amat, Tib. 3, 3, 20 (so perh. also in Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141, non assentiar saepe falso, instead of false).—Ellipt.: Da. Si quid narrare occepi, continuo dari tibi verba censes. Si. Falso, Ter. And. 3, 2, 24; cf.: atqui in talibus rebus aliud utile interdum, aliud honestum videri solet. Falso: nam, etc., Cic. Off. 3, 18, 74; so Quint. 2, 17, 12; Nep. Alc. 9: quia inter inpotentes et validos falso quiescas, = quia falluntur qui putant quiesci posse, Tac. Germ. 36.

false (very rare): judicium false factum, Sisenn. ap. Charis. p. 179; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 78 Fleck. (Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141 dub., B. and K., al. falso).—Sup.: quae adversus haec falsissime disputantur, Aug. Conf. 10, 13.