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Lewis : gravis

gravis, grăvis, e, adj. Sanscr. gurus (root gar-); Gr. βαρύς, heavy; gravis, for gar-uis; cf. also Brutus. With respect to weight, heavy, weighty, ponderous, burdensome; or pass., loaded, laden, burdened (opp. levis, light; in most of its significations corresp. to the Gr. βαρύς ; cf. onerosus, onerarius). Lit. Absol. or with abl. In gen.: imber et ignis, spiritus et gravis terra, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 37 Müll.; so, tellus, Ov. M. 7, 355: corpora, Lucr. 2, 225 sq.; cf. id. 5, 450 sq.: limus, id. 5, 496: in eo etiam cavillatus est, aestate grave esse aureum amiculum, hieme frigidum, Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 83: navigia, Caes. B. G. 5, 8, 4; cf.: tot ora navium gravi Rostrata duci pondere, Hor. Epod. 4, 17: cum gravius dorso (aselli) subiit onus, id. S. 1, 9, 21: sarcina, id. Ep. 1, 13, 6: inflexi grave robur aratri, Verg. G. 1, 162: cujus (tibicinae) Ad strepitum salias terrae gravis, Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 26: terra, burdened (by the heavy body), Ov. M. 12, 118: naves hostilibus spoliis graves, heavily laden, Liv. 29, 35, 5; cf.: agmen grave praedā, id. 21, 5, 8; for which also simply: grave agmen, id. 31, 39, 2: miles, heavy-armed, Tac. A. 12, 35: gravis aere dextra, Verg. E. 1, 36: cum fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit Pergama et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo, i. e. filled, full, id. A. 6, 516 (an imitation of Maximo saltu superavit Gravidus armatis equus, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2; v. gravidus, II. β ): graves imbre nubes, Liv. 28, 15, 11: graves fructu vites, Quint. 8, 3, 8: gravis vinculis, Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 10.

In partic. With respect to value or number, heavy, great. So, aes grave, heavy money, money of the oldest standard, in which an as weighed a full pound: grave aes dictum a pondere, quia deni asses, singuli pondo libras, efficiebant denarium, etc., Paul. ex Fest. p. 98 Müll.: et quia nondum argentum signatum erat, aes grave plaustris quidam (ex patribus) ad aerarium convehentes, etc., Liv. 4, 60, 6; 10, 46, 5; 22, 33, 2 et saep.: populus Romanus ne argento quidem signato ante Pyrrhum regem devictum usus est: librales appendebantur asses. Quare aeris gravis poena dicta, Plin. 33, 3, 13, § 42: argentum, i. e. uncoined = rude: placet argentum grave rustici patris sine ullo opere et nomine artificis, Sen. Tranq. 1, 4: notavit aliquos, quod pecunias levioribus usuris mutuati graviore fenore collocassent, at a higher rate, Suet. Aug. 39; cf.: in graviore annona, id. ib. 25: grave pretium, a high price, Sall. Fragm. ap. Non. 314, 25.—With respect to number: graves pavonum greges, great or numerous flocks, Varr. ap. Non. 314, 31.

For the usual gravidus, with young, pregnant (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): regina sacerdos Marte gravis, Verg. A. 1, 274; cf. uterus (shortly after: gravidus tumet venter), Ov. M. 10, 495: balaenae utero graves (shortly before, gravidae), Plin. 9, 6, 5, § 13.

Transf. Of hearing or sound, deep, grave, low, bass (opp. acutus, treble): vocem ab acutissimo sono usque ad gravissimum sonum recipiunt, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251; cf. id. ib. 3, 57, 216: qui (sonus) acuta cum gravibus temperans, varios aequabiliter concentus efficit, id. Rep. 6, 18: vox, Quint. 11, 3, 17; 42: sonus, 2, 8, 15; 5, 10, 125; 11, 3, 41; Ov. M. 12, 203: tenor, Quint. 1, 5, 26: syllaba, i. e. unaccented, id. 1, 5, 22 sq.; 12, 10, 33.

Of smell or flavor, strong, unpleasant, offensive: an gravis hirsutis cubet hircus in alis, rank, Hor. Epod. 12, 5: chelydri, Verg. G. 3, 415: ellebori, id. ib. 3, 451: odor calthae, strong, Plin. 21, 6, 15, § 28; cf.: herba odore suaviter gravi, id. 25, 9, 70, § 118; cf. 117: habrotonum odore jucunde gravi floret, id. 21, 10, 34, § 60: absynthium ut bibam gravem, i. e. bitter, Varr. ap. Non. 19, 27, and 314, 14.

Of the state of the body or health, gross, indigestible, unwholesome, noxious, severe; sick: (Cleanthes) negat ullum esse cibum tam gravem, quin is die et nocte concoquatur, Cic. N. D. 2, 9, 24; so, genera cibi graviora, Cels. 2, 18: gravissima bubula (caro), id. ib.: pisces gravissimi, id. ib.: neque ex salubri loco in gravem, neque ex gravi in salubrem transitus satis tutus est, id. 1, 3; cf.: solum caelumque juxta grave, Tac. H. 5, 7: solet esse gravis cantantibus umbra, Verg. E. 10, 75: anni tempore gravissimo et caloribus maximis, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 16, 1; cf.: gravis auctumnus in Apulia circumque Brundisium ex saluberrimis Galliae et Hispaniae regionibus, omnem exercitum valetudine tentaverat, Caes. B. C. 3, 2 fin.: grave tempus et forte annus pestilens erat urbi agrisque, Liv. 3, 6, 1; cf. also id. 3, 8, 1: aestas, Verg. G. 2, 377: morbo gravis, sick, id. ib. 3, 95; cf.: gravis vulnere, Liv. 21, 48, 4: aetate et viribus gravior, id. 2, 19, 6: gravior de vulnere, Val. Fl. 6, 65: non insueta graves tentabunt pabula fetas, sick, feeble, Verg. E. 1, 50; so absol.: aut abit in somnum gravis, heavy, languid, Lucr. 3, 1066. Trop. In a bad sense, heavy, burdensome, oppressive, troublesome, grievous, painful, hard, harsh, severe, disagreeable, unpleasant (syn.: molestus, difficilis, arduus): qui labores morte finisset graves, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 48, 115: quod numquam tibi senectutem gravem esse senserim ... quibus nihil est in ipsis opis ad bene beateque vivendum, iis omnis aetas gravis est, Cic. de Sen. 2, 4; cf.: onus officii, id. Rosc. Am. 38, 112; id. Rep. 1, 23: et facilior et minus aliis gravis aut molesta vita est otiosorum, id. Off. 1, 21, 70; id. Rep. 1, 4: miserior graviorque fortuna, Caes. B. G. 1, 32, 4: haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo illa gravius aestimare debere, etc., id. ib. 7, 14 fin.: velim si tibi grave non erit, me certiorem facias, Cic. Fam. 13, 73, 2: grave est homini pudenti petere aliquid magnum, id. Fam. 2, 6, 1; id. Att. 1, 5, 4: est in populum Romanum grave, non posse, etc., id. Balb. 7, 24: verbum gravius, id. Verr. 2, 3, 58, § 134: ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret ... quod si quid ei a Caesare gravius accidisset, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 20, 1 and 4: gravissimum supplicium, id. ib. 1, 31, 15: habemus senatusconsultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave, Cic. Cat. 1, 1, 3: edictum, Liv. 29, 21, 5: gravioribus bellis, Cic. Rep. 1, 40: gravis esse alicui, id. Fam. 13, 76, 2; cf.: adversarius imperii, id. Off. 3, 22, 86: gravior hostis, Liv. 10, 18, 6: senes ad ludum adolescentium descendant, ne sint iis odiosi et graves, Cic. Rep. 1, 43: gravis popularibus esse coepit, Liv. 44, 30, 5.—Prov.: gravis malae conscientiae lux est, Sen. Ep. 122.

In a good sense, weighty, important, grave; with respect to character, of weight or authority, eminent, venerable, great: numquam erit alienis gravis, qui suis se concinnat levem, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 58: quod apud omnes leve et infirmum est, id apud judicem grave et sanctum esse ducetur? Cic. Rosc. Com. 2, 6: ea (honestas) certe omni pondere gravior habenda est quam reliqua omnia, id. Off. 3, 8, 35; id. Deiot. 2, 5: cum gravibus seriisque rebus satisfecerimus, id. ib. 1, 29, 103: auctoritas clarissimi viri et in rei publicae maximis gravissimisque causis cogniti, id. Fam. 5, 12, 7; cf. causa, Lucil. ap. Non. 315, 31; Quint. 1, 2, 3; Caes. B. C. 1, 44, 4: gravius erit tuum unum verbum ad eam rem, quam centum mea, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 107: ut potentia senatus atque auctoritas minueretur: quae tamen gravis et magna remanebat, Cic. Rep. 2, 34: sententiis non tam gravibus et severis quam concinnis et venustis, id. Brut. 95, 325: gravior oratio, id. de Or. 2, 56, 227: nihil sibi gravius esse faciendum, quam ut, etc., id. Clu. 6, 16: inceptis gravibus et magna professis, Hor. A. P. 14: exemplum grave praebet ales, etc., id. C. 4, 11, 26: non tulit ullos haec civitas aut gloria clariores, aut auctoritate graviores, aut humanitate politiores, Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154: et esse et videri omnium gravissimus et severissimus, id. ib. 2, 56, 228: homo prudens et gravis, id. ib. 1, 9, 38: neque oratio abhorrens a persona hominis gravissimi, id. Rep. 1, 15 fin.: auctor, id. Pis. 6, 14: testis, id. Fam. 2, 2: non idem apud graves viros, quod leviores (decet), Quint. 11, 1, 45: vir bonus et gravis, id. 11, 3, 184: gravissimi sapientiae magistri, id. 12, 1, 36: tum pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem Conspexere, Verg. A. 1, 151: gravissima civitas, Cic. Rep. 1, 3: gravem atque opulentam civitatem vineis et pluteis cepit, an important city, Liv. 34, 17, 12.

Hence, adv.: grăvĭter. Weightily, heavily, ponderously (very rare): aëra per purum graviter simulacra feruntur, Lucr. 4, 302; cf.: graviter cadere, id. 1, 741; Ov. P. 1, 7, 49.

Transf. Of tones, deeply: natura fert, ut extrema ex altera parte graviter, ex altera autem acute sonent, Cic. Rep. 6, 18; Lucr. 4, 543.—Far more freq., Vehemently, strongly, violently: graviter crepuerunt fores, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 52; so, spirantibus flabris, Lucr. 6, 428; Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 2: pertentat tremor terras, Lucr. 6, 287: ferire aliquem, Verg. A. 12, 295: conquassari omnia, Lucr. 5, 105; cf.: quae gravissime afflictae erant naves, Caes. B. G. 4, 31, 2.

Trop.