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Lewis : improbus

improbus imprŏbus (inpr-), a, um, adj. 2. inprobus, not according to the standard. Lit. Below the standard, i. e. of bad quality, bad, poor, inferior (rare; mostly post-Aug.): merces, Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 43: opera araneorum et textura inproba, id. Stich. 2, 2, 24: panis, Mart. 10, 5, 5: improbiores postes, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139: tua sum opera et propter te inprobior, id. Bacch. 5, 2, 84.

Above or beyond the standard, i. e. enormous, monstrous, excessive: genua, Col. 6, 1, 3: arva, Val. Fl. 1, 510; 2, 631 (cf. Forbig. ad Verg. G. 1, 119; Orell. ad Hor. C. 3, 9, 22): Chilones a labris improbioribus, Charis. p. 78 P.: mons, Verg. A. 12, 687: tegmina plantae, Val. Fl. 6, 702: improbo somno, quem nec tertia saepe rumpit hora, Mart. 12, 18, 13: villus barbarum in capris, Plin. 12, 17, 37, § 73: reptatus (vitium), id. 14, 1, 3, § 13; Stat. Th. 6, 838: imber improbior, Sen. Q. N. 4, 4 fin. (in Sall. ap. Non. 366, 13; Hist. Fragm. 4, 40 Dietsch, the true read. is in prora).

Transf., of mind and character. Restless, indomitable, persistent (cf.: pervicax, perstans, vehemens, acer): labor omnia vincit improbus, Verg. G. 1, 146: tum cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, id. ib. 1, 388: quatit improbus hastam, id. A. 11, 767; cf. Hor. C. 3, 9, 23; Mart. 1, 105, 2; Ov. Tr. 1, 11, 41.

Morally bad; wicked, reprobate, abandoned, vile, base, impious, ungodly, unjust, dishonest; bold, shameless, impudent; violent, fierce, outrageous (syn.: malus, malignus, pravus, depravatus, nequam). Of living beings: NI TESTIMONIVM FARIATVR IMPROBVS INTESTABILISQVE ESTO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 15, 13 fin.: qui improbi essent et scelesti, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 137: nequam et improbus, Cic. Deiot. 7, 21: illud vero improbi esse hominis et perfidiosi, id. de Or. 2, 73, 297: Cresphontes, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38 (Trag. v. 156 Vahl.): populum aut inflammare in improbos aut incitatum in bonos mitigare, Cic. de Or. 1, 46, 202: longe post natos homines improbisssimus, id. Brut. 62, 224: cum in me tam improbus fuit, id. Att. 9, 15, 5: ab ingenio est improbus, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59: ut alias res est impense improbus, id. Ep. 4, 1, 39: negat improbus et te Neglegit, aut horret, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 63: anus, id. S. 2, 5, 84: cum eum, qui sit improbus, latronem dicimus, Quint. 8, 4, 1; 1, 8, 21: (anguis) piscibus atram inprobus ingluviem explet, voracious, Verg. G. 3, 431: lupus, id. A. 9, 62: Jovis ales, id. ib. 12, 250: annis, by his youth, Juv. 3, 282: Fortuna arridens infantibus, mischievous, id. 6, 605.

Comp.: inprobior satiram scribente cinaedo, Juv. 4, 106.

* With gen.: conubii, Stat. Th. 7, 300.

Of inanim. and abstr. things: improbo Iracundior Hadria, Hor. C. 3, 9, 22: lavit improba taeter Ora (leonis) cruor, Verg. A. 10, 727: perfricare faciem et quasi improbam facere, shameless, impudent, Quint. 11, 3, 160; cf.: oris improbi homo, Suet. Gramm. 15: divitiae, Hor. C. 3, 24, 62: improba non fuerit si mea charta, dato, Mart. 8, 24, 2: satureia, exciting lust, id. 3, 75, 4: ingenio improbo, Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 16: facta, id. Truc. 2, 7, 4: dicta, licentious, Ov. F. 5, 686: verba, id. A. A. 3, 796; cf. carmina, id. Tr. 2, 441: legis improbissimae poena, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 2: testamentum, illegal, id. Verr. 2, 1, 42, § 107: mala et improba defensio, id. ib. 2, 2, 41, § 101: amor, Verg. A. 4, 412; Hor. S. 1, 3, 24 (cf.: improbus, turpis, Schol. Cruq. ad loc.): spes, Quint. 12, 1, 13: improba ventris rabies, Verg. A. 2, 356: quo apertior adulatio, quo improbior, hoc citius expugnat, Sen. Q. N. 4 praef. med.: improba quamvis gratia fallaci praetoris vicerit urna, Juv. 13, 3.—Adv., in two forms, imprŏbē (class.) and improbĭter (perh. only once in Petr. 66). Beyond measure, immoderately, enormously (very rare): ad eos, quibus intestinum improbe prominet, Marc. Emp. 31 med.: de quodam procerae staturae improbiusque nato, i. e. uncommonly well furnished, Suet. Vesp. 23: Chilones improbius labrati, Charis. p. 78 P.

(Acc. to II.) Badly, wrongly, improperly: multa scelerate, multa audacter, multa improbe fecisti, Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104: facere aliquid, Quint. 1, 3, 13: quibus improbe datum est, Cic. Off. 2, 22, 79: quid ego miror, si quid ab improbis de me improbe dicitur? id. Sull. 10, 30: praeda improbe parta, id. Fin. 1, 16, 51: aliquid petere, Quint. 6, 3, 95: non improbe litigabunt, id. 12, 7, 5: ignorantia et inscitia improbe dicentium, quae non intellegunt, incorrectly, Gell. 15, 5, 1; so with indocte, id. 15, 9, 4.—Comp.: estne aliquid, quod improbius fieri possit? Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 60, § 140: decerpere oscula, Cat. 68, 126.

Sup.: quas (res) improbissime fecit, Cic. Caecin. 9, 23: respondere, id. Pis. 6, 13.