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Lewis : an

an, ăn, conj. [etym. very obscure; v. the various views adduced in Hand, I. p. 296, with which he seems dissatisfied; if it is connected with the Sanscr. anjas, = Germ. ander, = Engl. other, we may comp. the Engl. other and or with the Germ. oder, = or]. It introduces the second part of a disjunctive interrogation, or a phrase implying doubt, and thus unites in itself the signif. of aut and num or -ne, or, or whether (hence the clause with an is entirely parallel with that introduced by num, utrum, -ne, etc., while aut forms only a subdivision in the single disjunctive clause; utrum ... aut—an ... aut, whether ... or, etc.; cf. Ochsn. Eclog. p. 150; v. also aut). In disjunctive interrogations. Direct. Introd. by utrum (in Engl. the introd. particle whether is now obsolete, and the interrogation is denoted simply by the order of the words): Utrum hac me feriam an ab laevā latus? Plaut. Cist. 3, 10: sed utrum tu amicis hodie an inimicis tuis Daturu's cenam? id. Ps. 3, 2, 88; id. Pers. 3, 1, 13; id. Trin. 1, 2, 138; id. Cas. 2, 4, 11: Utrum sit annon voltis? id. Am. prol. 56: quid facies? Utrum hoc tantum crimen praetermittes an obicies? Cic. Div. in Caecil. 30 sq.: in plebem vero Romanam utrum superbiam prius commemorem an crudelitatem? id. Verr. 1, 122; id. Deiot. 23; id. Fam. 7, 13: Utrum enim defenditis an impugnatis plebem? Liv. 5, 3. —And with an twice: Utrum hoc signum cupiditatis tuae an tropaeum necessitudinis atque hospitii an amoris indicium esse voluisti? Cic. Verr. 2, 115; id. Imp. Pomp. 57 sq.; id. Rab. 21.—With an three times: Utrum res ab initio ita ducta est, an ad extremum ita perducta, an ita parva est pecunia, an is (homo) Verres, ut haec quae dixi, gratis facta esse videantur? Cic. Verr. 2, 61; 3, 83; id. Clu. 183; Liv. 21, 10; and seven times in Cic. Dom. 56-58.—With -ne pleon. (not to be confounded with cases where utrum precedes as pron.; as Cic. Tusc. 4, 4, 9): sed utrum tu masne an femina es, qui illum patrem voces? Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 16; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42; id. Stich. 5, 4, 26: Utrum studione id sibi habet an laudi putat Fore, si etc., Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 28: Utrum igitur tandem perspicuisne dubia aperiuntur an dubiis perspicua tolluntur? Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67.—And affixed to utrum, but rarely: Utrumne jussi persequemur otium ... an hunc laborem etc., Hor. Epod. 1, 7; Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 4; Quint. 12, 1, 40.

Introduced by -ne: quid fit? seditio tabetne an numeros augificat suos? Enn. Trag. Rel. p. 23 Rib.: servos esne an liber? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 186: idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret? Cic. Lig. 18; 23: custosne urbis an direptor et vexator esset Antonius? id. Phil. 3, 27; id. Mur. 88; id. Sull. 22.

So with an twice, Cic. Cat. 1, 28; id. Att. 16, 8; and five times, id. Balb. 9.

Introduced by nonne: Nonne ad servos videtis rem publicam venturam fuisse? An mihi ipsi fuit mors aequo animo oppetenda? Cic. Sest. 47; id. Sex. Rosc. 43 sq.; id. Dom. 26; 127.—So with an twice, Cic. Phil. 11, 36.

Introduced by num: si quis invidiae metus, num est vehementius severitatis invidia quam inertiae pertimescenda? Cic. Cat. 1, 29; id. Mur. 76; id. Sest. 80: Num quid duas habetis patrias an est illa patria communis? id. Leg. 2, 2.

Without introductory particle: quid igitur? haec vera an falsa sunt? Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 95: quid enim exspectas? bellum an tabulas novas? id. Cat. 2, 18: ipse percussit an aliis occidendum dedit? id. Sex. Rosc. 74; id. Verr. 2, 106; id. Imp. Pomp. 53; id. Phil. 2, 27: eloquar an sileam? Verg. A. 3, 37: auditis an me ludit amabilis Insania? Hor. C. 3, 4, 5.—So an twice, Cic. Mil. 54; three times, Plin. Ep. 2, 8; and six times, Cic. Rab. 14; id. Pis. 40.

Indirect. Introduced by utrum: quid tu, malum, curas, Utrum crudum an coctum edim? Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 16; id. Cist. 4, 2, 11; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 1; id. Mil. 2, 3, 74: quaero, si quis ... utrum is clemens an inhumanissimus esse videatur, Cic. Cat. 4, 12: agitur, utrum M. Antonio facultas detur an horum ei facere nihil liceat, id. Phil. 5, 6; id. Sex. Rosc. 72; id. Imp. Pomp. 42; id. Verr. 1, 105. !*? So once only in Vulg. aut for an: Loquimini de me utrum bovem cujusquam tulerim aut asinum, 1 Reg. 12, 3.—And with -ne pleon.: res in discrimine versatur, utrum possitne se contra luxuriem parsimonia defendere an deformata cupiditati addicatur, Cic. Quinct. 92: numquamne intelleges statuendum tibi esse, utrum illi, qui istam rem gesserunt, homicidaene sint an vindices libertatis? id. Phil. 2, 30.

Introduced by -ne: Fortunāne an forte repertus, Att. Trag. Rel. p. 159 Rib. agitur autem liberine vivamus an mortem obeamus, Cic. Phil. 11, 24; id. Verr. 4, 73; id. Mil. 16: nunc vero non id agitur, bonisne an malis moribus vivamus etc., Sall. C. 52, 10.—So with an three times, Cic. Or. 61.

Introduced by an: haud scio an malim te videri ... an amicos tuos plus habuisse, Cic. Pis. 39.

Without introd. particle: ... vivam an moriar, nulla in me est metus, Enn. Trag. Rel. p. 72 Rib.: vivat an mortuus sit, quis aut scit aut curat? Cic. Phil. 13, 33; 3, 18; id. Sex. Rosc. 88; id. Red. in Sen. 14.

Sometimes the opinion of the speaker or the probability inclines to the second interrogative clause (cf. infra, II. E.). and this is made emphatic, as a corrective of the former, or rather, or on the contrary: ea quae dixi ad corpusne refers? an est aliquid, quod te suā sponte delectet? Cic. Fin. 2, 33, 107: Cur sic agere voluistis? An ignoratis quod etc., Vulg. Gen. 44, 15.—Hence, in the comic poets, an potius: cum animo depugnat suo, Utrum itane esse mavelit ut ... An ita potius ut etc., Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 31: id. Stich. 1, 2, 18; id. Trin. 2, 2, 25: an id flagitium est, An potius hoc patri aequomst fieri, ut a me ludatur dolis? Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 94.

The first part of the interrogation is freq. not expressed, but is to be supplied from the context; in this case, an begins the interrog., or, or rather, or indeed, or perhaps (but it does not begin an absolute, i. e. not disjunctive, interrog.): De. Credam ego istuc, si esse te hilarem videro. Ar. An tu esse me tristem putas? (where nonne me hilarem esse vides? is implied), Plaut. As. 5, 1, 10: Ch. Sed Thaïs multon ante venit? Py. An abiit jam a milite? Ter. Eun. 4, 5, 7: An ego Ulixem obliscar umquam? Att. Trag. Rel. p. 199 Rib.: An parum vobis est quod peccatis? Vulg. Josh. 22, 17: est igitur aliquid, quod perturbata mens melius possit facere quam constans? an quisquam potest sine perturbatione mentis irasci? Cic. Tusc. 4, 24, 54; cf. id. Clu. 22; id. Off. 3, 29: Debes hoc etiam rescribere, sit tibi curae Quantae conveniat Munatius; an male sarta Gratia nequiquam coit ... ? or is perhaps, etc., Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 31 K. and H. —So esp. in Cic., in order to make the truth of an assertion more certain, by an argumentum a minore ad majus: cur (philosophus) pecuniam magno opere desideret vel potius curet omnino? an Scythes Anacharsis potuit pro nihilo pecuniam ducere, nostrates philosophi non potuerunt? Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 89 sq.: An vero P. Scipio T. Gracchum privatus interfecit, Catilinam vero nos consules perferemus? id. Cat. 1, 1; so id. Rab. Perd. 5; id. Phil. 14, 5, 12 Muret.; id. Fin. 1, 2, 5, ubi v. Madv.—It sometimes introduces a question suggested by the words of another: He. Mane. Non dum audisti, Demea, Quod est gravissimum? De. An quid est etiam anplius? Is there then etc., Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 21: sed ad haec, nisi molestum est, habeo quae velim. An me, inquam, nisi te audire vellem censes haec dicturum fuisse? Cic. Fin. 1, 8, 28; 2, 22, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 26, 73; 5, 12, 35; id. Brut. 184; id. Fat. 2, 4; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 1, 8, 28.—It sometimes anticipates an answer to something going before: At vero si ad vitem sensus accesserit, ut appetitum quenda