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Lewis : iam

iam, jam, adv. for diam, collat. form of diem, cf. pri-dem, du-dum, Corss. Ausspr. I. p. 213; II. p. 850; but acc. to Curt. Gr. Etym. 398, 620; locat. form from pronom. stem ja. Of time, denoting a point or moment of time as coinciding with that of the action, etc., described. Of present time. As opp. to past or future, at this time, now, just now, at present, i. e. while I speak or write this. Jam alone: jamne autem, ut soles, deludis? Plaut. Aul. 5, 11: jam satis credis sobrium esse me, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 36: saltus reficit jam roscida luna, Verg. G. 3, 337: jam tenebris et sole cadente, id. ib. 3, 401: jamque dies, ni fallor, adest, id. A. 5, 49: jam advesperascit, Ter. And. 3, 4, 2: reddere qui voces jam scit puer, Hor. A. P. 158: stabat modo consularis, modo septemvir epulonum; jam neutrum, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 12: jam melior, jam, diva, precor, Verg. A. 12, 179: Hem, scio jam quod vis dicere, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 36: in ea (consuetudine) quaedam sunt jura ipsa jam certa propter vetustatem, Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 67: jam tempus agi, Verg. A. 5, 638: surgere jam tempus, Cat. 62, 3.

Strengthened. By repetition: jam jam, jam jamque (nearly = nunc), at this very time, precisely now: jam jam intellego, Crasse, quod dicas, Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 90: jam jam minime miror te otium perturbare, id. Phil. 2, 34, 87: jam jam dolet quod egi, jam jamque paenitet, Cat. 63, 73: jam jam linquo acies, Verg. A. 12, 875: jam jamque video bellum, Cic. Att. 16, 9 fin.: at illum ruere nuntiant et jam jamque adesse, id. ib. 7, 20, 1; cf.: jam mihi, jam possim contentus vivere parvo, Tib. 1, 1, 25 (7).

By nunc: jam nunc, just now, at this very time, as things now are: jam nunc irata non es, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 65: dux, jam nunc locatus in urbe, Liv. 22, 38, 9; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 127: quae cum cogito, jam nunc timeo quidnam, etc., Cic. Div. in Caecil. 13, 42: deliberationis ejus tempus ita jam nunc statui posse, etc., Liv. 31, 32, 3: ipsa Venus laetos jam nunc migravit in agros, Tib. 2, 3, 3: nec jam nunc regina loquor, Val. Fl. 8, 47; so, nunc jam (nunciam): secede huc nunciam, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 23: audi nunciam, Ter. And. 2, 1, 29: i nunciam, id. Ad. 2, 1, 21: nunc jam sum expeditus, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 12, 5: nunc jam nobis vobisque consulatus patet, Liv. 7, 32, 14.

By tum: jam tum opifices funguntur munere, Plin. 11, 21, 24, § 74; Verg. G. 2, 405; id. A. 1, 18.

By pridem, v. jampridem.

In contrast with the time at which something was expected. Of that which occurs sooner, already, so soon: quies (animos) aut jam exhaustos aut mox exhauriendos, renovavit, Liv. 21, 21, 7: gravitate valetudinis, qua tamen jam paululum videor levari, Cic. Fam. 6, 2, 1; 3, 8, 16: jamne ibis, are you going so soon, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 86; id. Rud. 2, 7, 26.

Of that which occurs later, at last, now, only now: ohe jam desine deos uxor gratulando obtundere, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 8: postulo, Dave, ut redeat jam in viam, id. And. 1, 2, 19: jamque sero diei subducit ex acie legionem faciendis castris, Tac. A. 2, 21: jam sanguinis alti vis sibi fecit iter, Luc. 2, 214.—Tandem or aliquando is often added: jam tandem ades ilico, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 39: putamus enim utile esse te aliquando jam rem transigere, Cic. Att. 1, 4, 1: jam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras, Verg. A. 6, 61; Liv. 22, 12, 10.

As continued from the past, already, by this time, ere now, till now, hitherto: et apud Graecos quidem jam anni prope quadrigenti sunt, etc., Cic. Or. 51, 171: obsolevit jam ista oratio, id. de Imp. Pomp. 17, 52: nondum feminam aequavimus gloriā, et jam nos laudis satietas cepit? Curt. 9, 6, 23.—With numerals and words specifying time: jam biennium est, cum mecum coepit rem gerere, Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 35; so, plus jam anno, id. Curc. 1, 1, 14: sunt duo menses jam, Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 8: qui septingentos jam annos vivunt, etc., id. Fl. 26, 63: annum jam tertium et vicesimum regnat, id. de Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; id. Fin. 2, 29, 94.

With imperatives, to express haste or impatience, like Engl. now, now, straightway, at once: quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? Jam parce sepulto, Verg. A. 3, 41: sed jam age, carpe viam, id. ib. 6, 629: et jam tu ... illum adspice contra, id. ib. 11, 373.—So in impetuous or passionate questions (freq. in Plaut.): Jam tu autem nobis praeturam geris? Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 23; cf. id. Aul. 5, 11; id. Bacch. 2, 2, 25.

Jam ... jam, at one time ... at another, now ... now, at this time ... at that: jamque eadem digitis jam pectine pulsat eburno, Verg. A. 647: jamque hos cursu, jam praeterit illos, id. ib. 4, 157: qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborat, Hor. S. 2, 7, 20: jam vino quaerens, jam somno fallere curas, id. ib. 2, 7, 114: jam secundae, jam adversae res, ita erudierant, etc., Liv. 30, 30; Tib. 1, 2, 49; Ov. M. 1, 111.

Of past time. In the time just past, but now, a moment ago, a little while ago, just: videamus nunc quam sint praeclare illa his, quae jam posui, consequentia, Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 26: Arsinoë et jam dicta Memphis, Plin. 5, 9, 11, § 61: insulae praeter jam dictas, id. 3, 26, 30, § 151: hiems jam praecipitaverat, Caes. B. C. 3, 25, 1: domum quam tu jam exaedificatam habebas, Cic. Att. 1, 6, 1.

Like English now, by this time, already. Alone: jam advesperascebat, Liv. 39, 50: Hannibalem movisse ex hibernis, et jam Alpes transire, id. 27, 39: et jam fama volans ... domos et moenia complet, Verg. A. 11, 139; 12, 582; Caes. B. G. 1, 11; 6, 6: jamque rubescebat Aurora, Verg. A. 3, 521; 10, 260: ut semel inclinavit pugna, jam intolerabilis Romana vis erat, Liv. 6, 32: cum decimum jam diem graviter ex intestinis laborarem, Cic. Fam. 7, 26, 1.

Strengthened. Jam jamque, Verg. A. 8, 708.

By tum, as early as that: se jam tum gessisse pro cive, Cic. Arch. 5, 11; Liv. 29, 1; Verg. 7, 738; Tac. Agr. 45.

By tunc (post-Aug.; once in Cic.), Suet. Aug. 89; id. Ner. 7; Tac. H. 4, 50; Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 3 dub.

Of a time succeeding another time referred to, from that time, thenceforth, thereafter (esp. with a or ab, when it is often = Eng. even, very): qui aequom esse censent nos jam a pueris nasci senes, Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 2: quae me maxime sicuti jam a prima adolescentia delectarunt, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 67: benevolentia quae mihi jam a pueritia tua cognita est, id. ib. 4, 7, 1: dederas enim jam ab adolescentia documenta, id. Mil. 8, 22: jam ab illo tempore, cum, etc., from the very time when, etc., id. Fam. 2, 16, 9; cf.: urgerent philosophorum greges jam ab illo fonte et capite Socrate, id. de Or. 1, 10, 42. —So with ex: jam ex quo ipse accepisset regnum, ever since, Liv. 42, 11, 8.

Of future time. In the time immediately approaching, forthwith, straightway, directly, presently: occlude sis fores ambobus pessulis: jam ego hic ero, Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 25: ille jam hic aderit, id. Ep. 2, 2, 72: omitte; jam adero, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 26; cf. id. ib. 4, 6, 1; id. And. 1, 2, 9; 4, 4, 38: bono animo es; jam argentum ad eam deferes, quod ei es pollicitus, id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18: facere id ut paratum jam sit, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 76: jam fuerit, neque post unquam revocare licebit, Lucr. 3, 927: jam faciam quod voltis, Hor. S. 1, 1, 16: jam enim aderunt consules ad suas Nonas, Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2.

In the time immediately succeeding another time referred to, forthwith, at once, straightway, then: nunc ubi me illic non videbit, jam huc recurret, Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 10: accede ad ignem ... jam calesces, id. Eun. 1, 2, 5: nisi puerum tollis, jam ego hunc in mediam viam provolvam, id. And. 4, 4, 38: de quibus jam dicendi locus erit, cum de senioribus pauca dixero, Cic. Brut. 25, 96: agedum, dictatorem creemus. Jam hic centicescet furor, Liv. 2, 29, 11: aperi, inquit, jam scies, Petr. 16, 2; cf. Verg. A. 1, 272.

Representing as present an impending event, now, already, presently (mostly poet.): jam te premet n