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Lewis : officium

officium, offĭcĭum, ii, n. for opificium, opus and facio, qs. that which one does for another, a service, whether of free will or of (external or moral) necessity (class.; cf.: studium, beneficium, meritum, munus). A voluntary service, a kindness, favor, courtesy, rendered to one whose claim to it is recognized; while beneficium is a service rendered where there is no claim: officium esse filii, uxoris, earum personarum, quas necessitudo suscitat et ferre opem jubet, Sen. Ben. 3, 18, 1. In gen.: altera sententia est, quae definit amicitiam paribus officiis ac voluntatibus, Cic. Lael. 16, 58: odiosum sane genus hominum officia exprobrantium, id. ib. 20, 71: nihil est vicissitudine studiorum officiorumque jucundius, id. ib. 14, 49: filicem cum officio vicini decidere, so as to do him a service, Col. 2, 14, 6: summo officio praeditus homo, exceedingly obliging, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 51, § 135.

In partic. A ceremonial observance, ceremony, attendance (on a festive or solemn occasion; mostly post-Aug.): officio togae virilis interfui, Plin. Ep. 1, 9, 2: sine solenni officio, Suet. Claud. 2: per sollenne nuptiarum celeberrimo officio deductum ad se, id. Ner. 28; cf. id. Claud. 26: ad officium venire, id. Calig. 25: relicto statim novorum consulum officio, id. Caes. 50: in officio salutationis, id. Aug. 27: vitans praeter navigantium officia, id. Tib. 12: officia prosequentium, id. Caes. 71: quod supremis in matrem officiis defuisset, at the payment of the last offices, at the funeral, Tac. A. 5, 2: officium cras Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini, a ceremonial visit, Juv. 2, 133 sq.; 3, 239.

In mal. part., compliance, favor, Prop. 3, 15, 24; Ov. Am. 1, 10, 46; 3, 7, 24; cf. virile, Theod. Prisc. 2, 11: puerile, Plaut. Cist. 4, 1, 5; Petr. 140.

In gen., an obligatory service, an obligation, duty, function, part, office (so most freq. in prose and poetry of all periods): nulla vitae pars neque publicis neque privatis neque forensibus neque domesticis in rebus, neque si tecum agas quid, neque, si cum altero contrahas, vacare oflicio potest: in eoque et colendo sita vitae est honestas omnis et in neglegendo turpitudo, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 2, 4 sq.: perfectum officium rectum opinor vocemus, quod Graeci κατόρθωμα : hoc autem commune καθῆκον vocant, id. ib. 1, 3, 8; an id doles, quia illi suum officium non colunt, quom tu tuum facis? Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 34; id. ib. 1, 1, 39; id. Pers. 4, 4, 66: meminisse officium suum, to remember one's duty, id. Trin. 3, 2, 71.—Also, subject., a sense of duty: si quis aegre ferat nihil in se esse virtutis, nihil officii, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 28, 61: quicquid in eum judicii officiique contuleris, id. Fam. 10, 1 fin.: intellegere, utrum apud eos pudor atque officium an timor valeret, Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 14: suum facere, to do one's duty, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 44: omnibus officiis amicitiae servatis, observe all the obligations of friendship, Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3: exsequi, id. Att. 3, 15, 4: fungi officio, id. Fam. 3, 8, 3: satisfacere officio, to perform, id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47: officium suum deserere, to disregard one's duty, not perform it, id. Off. 1, 9, 28: discedere ab officio, id. ib. 1, 10, 32: deesse officio suo, id. Fam. 7, 3, 1: officii duxit, considered it his duty, Suet. Tib. 11.—Of animals: canes funguntur officiis luporum, act the part of, Auct. Her. 4, 34, 46.—Of things: neque pes neque mens satis suum officium facit, Ter. Eun. 4, 5, 3: officium corporis, the function or property of a body, Lucr. 1, 336 and 362.

In partic. Lit., an official duty, a service, employment, business (class.): toti officio maritimo M. Bibulus praepositus cuncta administrabat, naval service, Caes. B. C. 3, 5 fin.; 3, 8: celeriter equitatus ad cotidianum itineris officium revertitur, id. ib. 1, 80: confecto legationis officio, id. ib. 3, 103: destringor officio, Plin. Ep. 7, 15, 1: officium (scribae), Nep. Eum. 1, 5.

Transf., an office, appointment (post-Aug.). Laboriosissimum et maximum, office, Plin. Pan. 91: nova officia excogitavit, Suet. Aug. 37; cf.: novum officium instituit a voluptatibus, id. Tib. 42: obligationes, quae non propriis viribus consistunt, neque officio judicis, neque praetoris imperio neque legis potestate confirmantur, Dig. 44, 7, 27: qui ex officio pro aliis interveniunt, by virtue of their office, ib. 21, 1, 31, § 14: ministerii, Vulg. Exod. 28, 35: sacerdotum, id. Num. 7, 8.

Transf., in concr. The officials or attendants on a magistrate = officialium corpus (post-class.): sub praetextu adventus officiorum vel militum, Dig. 1, 18, 6; 21, 2, 74: deponere aliquid apud officium, ib. 2, 4. 17: officia palatina, officers at the imperial court, Treb. Poll. Gall. 17, 8.

An office or court of a magistrate: ipse me Regulus convenit in praetoris officio, Plin. Ep. 1, 5, 11.