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Lewis : penna

penna penna or pinna (old forms, pesna, petna, Fest. p. 205, 209 Müll.), f. orig. different words, penna for petna; root petor pat-; Sanscr. patāmi, to fly; Gr. πέτομαι, prop. a wing: pinna for pitna; cf. Sanscr. pitu; Gr. πίτυς, the pine-tree; Lat. pinus; cf.: spiculum, spina; prop. a sharp point or end. To a late period an effort was made to distinguish them: nec miretur (puer), cur ... fiat a pinno quod est acutum, securis utrimque habens aciem bipennis, ne illorum sequatur errorem, qui, quia a pennis duabus hoc esse nomen existimant, pennas avium dici volunt, Quint. 1, 4, 12 Halm: pinnum enim antiqui acutum dicebant, Isid. Orig. 19, 19, 11 dub. (v. 1. pennus): pinnas murorum, pennas avium dicimus, Flav. Cap. p. 2243 P. This dictum of the old grammar we have to retain, although the distinction is neither etymologically sound nor is it always practically true; cf. bipennis, Bramb. Lat. Orthog. p. 118. In MSS. and edd. the two forms have mostly been used indiscriminately in all meanings except II. D. E. F. infra, in which pinna only is found; cf. esp. Wagn. Orth. Verg. p. 465; Rib. prol. Verg. p. 441 sq.; Corss. Ausspr. 2, p. 270 sq., a feather on the body of a winged creature (syn. pluma). Lit. Form penna: sine pennis volare haud facile est: meae alae pennas non habent, Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 48: pennarum tuarum nitor, Phaedr. 1, 13, 6: maduere graves aspergine pennae, Ov. M. 4, 728.

Form pinna: (aves) pullos pinnis fovent, Cic. N. D. 2, 52, 129: pinnarum caules omnium cavi, Plin. 11, 39, 34, § 97; Sen. Ep. 42, 4: ova parire solet genus pinnis condecoratum, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 59 Müll. (Ann. v. 10 Vahl.): conveniebat corvos ex albis album pinnis jactare colorem, Lucr. 2, 823 Munro: galli salaces, frequentibus pinnis, Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 5; Col. 8, 2, 10: nam his rebus plumam pinnasque emundant, id. ib. 9, 14, 7: ut statim per somnum hianti pinna in os inderetur, Suet. Claud. 33.

Transf. In plur.: pennae (pinnae), a wing (syn. ala). Form pennae: age tu, sis, sine pennis vola, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 80: quatere in aëre, Ov. M. 4, 676: pennis resumptis, id. ib. 4, 664: vertere, to fly away, Prop. 2, 24, 22 (3, 19, 6): penna, collect. for the wings, Ov. M. 2, 376.

Form pinnae: geminis secat aëra pinnis, Cic. Arat. 48 (282): pinnas explicare, Ov. Am. 2, 6, 55: o Fides alma, apta pinnis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 3, 29, 104 (Trag. v. 410 Vahl.): densis ales pinnis obnixa, id. ap. Prob. ad Verg. E. 6, 31 (Ann. v. 148 ib.): (aquila) praepetibus pinnis (B. and K.; al. pennis), Cic. poët. Div. 1, 47, 106. —Of bees: pinnis coruscant, Verg. G. 4, 73. —Of locusts: pinnarum stridor, Plin. 11, 29, 35, § 104.—Of gnats: pinnae culicis, Plin. 11, 2, 1, § 3.—Prov.: pinnas incidere alicui, to clip one's wings, i. e. to deprive one of power or rank, Cic. Att. 4, 2, 5; so, decisis humilis pinnis, with clipped wings, i. e. with disappointed hopes, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 50; cf. the opp.: extendere pinnas, to spread out one's wings, i. e. to attempt great things, id. ib. 1, 20, 21.

Poet., a flying, flight. Form penna: felicibus edita pennis, i. e. with a happy omen from the flight of birds, Prop. 3, 10 (4, 9), 11; Sil. 3, 344; Val. Fl. 1, 231.

Form pinna: pinnā veras dare notas, Ov. F. 1, 448.

A feather on an arrow (poet.). Form penna: per jugulum pennis tenus acta sagitta est, Ov. M. 6, 258.—Hence, Meton., an arrow (poet.). Form penna: cervos pennā petere, Val. Fl. 6, 421.

Form pinna: olor trajectus pinnā, Ov. F. 2, 110.

In late Lat., a pen.—Form penna: instrumenta scribae, calamus et penna: sed calamus arboris est, penna avis, Isid. Orig. 6, 14.

A fin. —Form pinna, Plin. 9, 13, 15, § 42.

A pinnacle.—Form pinna: turres contabulantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus attexuntur, Caes. B. G. 5, 39; 7, 72: milites Metelli ... a pinnis hostis defendebant facillime funditore, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 1, 1; Verg. A. 7, 159: templi, Vulg. Luc. 4, 9.

In mechanics. A float or bucket of a water-wheel.—Form pinna, Vitr. 10, 10.

A stop or key of a water-organ.

Form pinna, Vitr. 10, 13.