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Lewis : ars

ars, ars, artis, f. v. arma, skill in joining something, combining, working it, etc., with the advancement of Roman culture, carried entirely beyond the sphere of the common pursuits of life, into that of artistic and scientific action, just as, on the other hand, in mental cultivation, skill is applied to morals, designating character, manner of thinking, so far as it is made known by external actions (syn.: doctrina, sollertia, calliditas, prudentia, virtus, industria, ratio, via, dolus). Skill in producing any material form, handicraft, trade, occupation, employment ( τέχνη ). Lit.: Zeno censet artis proprium esse creare et gignere, Cic. N. D. 2, 22, 57: quarum (artium) omne opus est in faciendo atque agendo, id. Ac. 2, 7, 22; id. Off. 2, 3, 12 sq.

Transf. With the idea extended, any physical or mental activity, so far as it is practically exhibited; a profession, art (music, poetry, medicine, etc.); acc. to Roman notions, the arts were either liberales or ingenuae artes, arts of freemen, the liberal arts; or artes illiberales or sordidae, the arts, employments, of slaves or the lower classes. In gen.: Eleus Hippias gloriatus est nihil esse ullā in arte rerum omnium, quod ipse nesciret: nec solum has artes, quibus liberales doctrinae atque ingenuae continerentur, geometriam, musicam, litterarum cognitionem et poëtarum, atque illa, quae de naturis rerum, quae de hominum moribus, quae de rebus publicis dicerentur, sed anulum, quem haberet, pallium, quo amictus, soccos, quibus indutus esset, se suā manu confecisse, Cic. de Or. 3, 32, 127: Jam de artificiis et quaestibus, qui liberales habendi, qui sordidi sint, haec fere accepimus. Primum improbantur ii quaestus, qui in odia hominum incurrunt, ut portitorum, ut feneratorum. Illiberales autem et sordidi quaestus mercenariorum omniumque, quorum operae, non artes emuntur: est enim in illis ipsa merces auctoramentum servitutis ... Opificesque omnes in sordidā arte versantur ... Quibus autem artibus aut prudentia major inest aut non mediocris utilitas quaeritur, ut medicina, ut architectura, ut doctrina rerum honestarum, hae sunt iis, quorum ordini conveniunt, honestae, Cic. Off. 1, 42, 150 sq.; cf. id. Fam. 4, 3: artes elegantes, id. Fin. 3, 2, 4: laudatae, id. de Or. 1, 3, 9: bonae, Ov. Tr. 3, 7, 32: optimae, Cic. Fin. 2, 34, 111: magnae, id. Or. 1, 4: maximae, id. de Or. 1, 2, 6: gravissimae, id. Fin. 2, 34, 112: leviores artes, id. Brut. 1, 3: mediocres, id. de Or. 1, 2, 6: omnis artifex omnis artis, Vulg. Apoc. 18, 22: artifices omnium artium, ib. 1 Par. 22, 15.

Esp., of a single art, and, With an adj. designating it: ars gymnastica, gymnastics, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 73: ars duellica, the art of war, id. Ep. 3, 4, 14: ars imperatoria, generalship, Quint. 2, 17, 34: (artes) militares et imperatoriae, Liv. 25, 9, 12: artes civiles, politics, Tac. Agr. 29: artes urbanae, i. e. jurisprudence and eloquence, Liv. 9, 42: ars grammatica, grammar, Plin. 7, 39, 40, § 128: rhetorica, Quint. 2, 17, 4: musica, poetry, Ter. Hec. prol. 23: musica, music, Plin. 2, 25, 23, § 93: medicae artes, the healing art, medicine, Ov. H. 5, 145; so, ars Apollinea, id. Tr. 3, 3, 10: magica, Verg. A. 4, 493, and Vulg. Sap. 17, 7; so, maleficis artibus inserviebat, he used witchcraft, ib. 2 Par. 33, 6 al.

With a gen. designating it: ars disserendi, dialectics, Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 157: ars dicendi, the art of speaking, id. ib. 1, 23, 107, and Quint. 2, 17, 17; so, ars eloquentiae, id. 2, 11, 4: ars medendi, Ov. A. A. 2, 735: ars medentium, Stat. S. 5, 1, 158: medicorum ars, Vulg. 1 Par. 16, 12: pigmentariorum ars, the art of unguents, ib. 2 Par. 16, 4: ars armorum, the art of war, Quint. 2, 17, 33: ars pugnae, Vulg. Judith, 5, 27; so in plur.: belli artes, Liv. 25, 40, 5: ars gubernandi, navigation, Cic. Div. 1, 14, 24; Quint. 2, 17, 33; so, ars gubernatoris, Cic. Fin. 1, 13, 42.—Sometimes the kind of art may be distinguished by the connection, so that ars is used absol. of a particular art: instruere Atriden num potes arte meā? i. e. arte sagittandi, Ov. H. 16, 364: tunc ego sim Inachio notior arte Lino, i. e. arte canendi, Prop. 3, 4, 8: fert ingens a puppe Notus: nunc arte (sc. navigandi) relictā Ingemit, Stat. Th. 3, 29; so Luc. 7, 126; Sil. 4, 715: imus ad insignes Urbis ab arte (sc. rhetoricā) viros, Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 16: ejusdem erat artis, i. e. artis scaenofactoriae, Vulg. Act. 18, 3.

Science, knowledge: quis ignorat, ii, qui mathematici vocantur, quantā in obscuritate rerum et quam reconditā in arte et multiplici subtilique versentur, Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 10: nam si ars ita definitur, ex rebus penitus perspectis planeque cognitis atque ab opinionis arbitrio sejunctis, scientiāque comprehensis, non mihi videtur ars oratoris esse ulla, id. ib. 1, 23, 108: nihil est quod ad artem redigi possit, nisi ille prius, qui illa tenet. quorum artem instituere vult, habeat illam scientiam (sc. dialecticam), ut ex iis rebus, quarum ars nondum sit, artem efficere possit, id. ib. 1, 41, 186: ars juris civilis, id. ib. 1, 42, 190: (Antiochus) negabat ullam esse artem, quae ipsa a se proficisceretur. Etenim semper illud extra est, quod arte comprehenditur ... Est enim perspicuum nullam artem ipsam in se versari, sed esse aliud artem ipsam, aliud, quod propositum sit arti, id. Fin. 5, 6, 16; id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 9; id. Cael. 30, 72; id. Or. 1, 4: vir bonus optimisque artibus eruditus, Nep. Att. 12, 4: ingenium docile, come, ap-tum ad artes optimas, id. Dion, 1, 2 al.

The theory of any art or science: ars est praeceptio, quae dat certam viam rationemque faciendi aliquid, Auct. ad Her. 1, 1; Asper, p. 1725 P.: non omnia, quaecumque loquimur, mihi videntur ad artem et ad praecepta esse revocanda, not every thing is to be traced back to theory and rules, Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 44: res mihi videtur esse facultate (in practice) praeclara, arte (in theory) mediocris; ars enim earum rerum est, quae sciuntur: oratoris autem omnis actio opinionibus, non scientiā continetur, id. ib. 2, 7, 30; id. Ac. 2, 7, 22.—In later Lat. ars is used, Absol. for grammatical analysis, grammar: curru non, ut quidam putant, pro currui posuit, nec est apocope: sed ratio artis antiquae, etc., Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 156; 1, 95: et hoc est artis, ut (vulgus) masculino utamur, quia omnia Latina nomina in us exeuntia, si neutra fuerint, tertiae sunt declinationis, etc., id. ad eund. ib. 1, 149: secundum artem dicamus honor, arbor, lepor: plerumque poëtae r in s mutant, id. ad eund. ib. 1, 153 al.—Hence also, As a title of books in which such theories are discussed, for rhetorical and, at a later period, for grammatical treatises. Rhetorical: quam multa non solum praecepta in artibus, sed etiam exempla in orationibus bene dicendi reliquerunt! Cic. Fin. 4, 3, 5: ipsae rhetorum artes, quae sunt totae forenses atque populares, id. ib. 3, 1, 4: neque eo dico, quod ejus (Hermagorae) ars mihi mendosissime scripta videatur; nam satis in eā videtur ex antiquis artibus (from the ancient works on rhetoric) ingeniose et diligenter electas res collocāsse, id. Inv. 1, 6 fin.: illi verbis et artibus aluerunt naturae principia, hi autem institutis et legibus, id. Rep. 3, 4, 7: artem scindens Theodori, Juv. 7, 177.

Grammar: in artibus legimus superlativum gradum non nisi genitivo plurali jungi, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 96: ut in artibus lectum est, id. ad eund. ib. 1, 535.—So Ars, as the title of the later Lat. grammars: Donati Ars Grammatica, Cledonii Ars, Marii Victorini Ars, etc.; v. the grammarians in Gothofred., Putsch., Lindem., Keil.

The knowledge, art, skill, workmanship, employed in effecting or working upon an object (Fr. adresse): majore quādam opus est vel arte vel diligentiā, Cic. Ac. 2, 14 fin.: et tripodas septem pondere et arte pares, Ov. H. 3, 32: qui canit arte, canat; qui bibit arte, bibat, id. A. A. 2, 506: arte laboratae vestes, Verg. A. 1, 639: plausus tunc arte carebat, was void of art, was natural, unaffected, Ov. A. A. 1, 113.

(Concr.) The object artistically formed, a work of art: clipeum efferri jussit Didymaonis artis, Verg. A. 5, 359: divite me scilicet artium, Quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, Hor. C. 4, 8, 5; id. Ep. 1, 6, 17.

Artes (personified), the Muses: artium ch τέχνη for cunning, artifice, fraud, stratagem: haec arte tractabat virum, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 125 (cf. Ov. H. 17, 142): capti eādem arte sunt, quā ceperant Fabios, Liv. 2, 51; 3, 35: at Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat Consilia, Verg. A. 1, 657; so id. ib. 7, 477: ille dolis instructus et arte Pelasgā, id. ib. 2, 152: talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis Credita res, etc., id. ib. 2, 195: fraudes innectere ponto Antiquā parat arte, Luc. 4, 449: tantum illi vel ingenii vel artis vel fortunae superfuit, Suet. Tit. 1: fugam arte simulantes, Vulg. Jud. 20, 32: regem summis artibus pellexit, πάσῃ μηχανῇ, Suet. Vit. 2.