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Lewis : princeps

princeps, princeps, cĭpis, adj. and subst. comm. [primus-capio], first in time or order (syn. primus).—Lit., in gen.: ut quisque in fugā postremus, ita periculo princeps erat, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 90: princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus conserto proelio excedebat, Liv. 21, 4: princeps Horatius ibat, first, in front, in advance, id. 1, 26 Weissenb. ad loc.: princeps fuit ad conatum exercitus comparandi, Cic. Phil. 10, 11, 24: Firmani principes pecuniae pollicendae fuerunt, were the first to promise, id. ib. 7, 8, 23: princeps in agendo, id. Div. in Caecil. 15, 47; Caes. B. G. 7, 2: omnium nationum exterarum princeps Sicilia se ad amicitiam populi Romani applicuit, was the first that entered into friendship with the Roman people, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 2: princeps et solus bellum his indixit, Nep. Thras. 1, 5: princeps in haec verba jurat, Caes. B. C. 1, 76: ut principes talem nuntium attulisse viderentur, to be the first, id. ib. 1, 53: qui Formiarum moenia dicitur Princeps tenuisse, Hor. C. 3, 17, 7: matri Qui dederit princeps oscula, Ov. F. 2, 714: princeps turmas inducit Asilas, Verg. A. 11, 620: princeps ante omnes, first of all, id. ib. 5, 833.—Of things: quoniam exordium princeps omnium esse debet, Cic. Inv. 1, 7, 19: qualitatum aliae sunt principes, aliae ex lis ortae, original, id. Ac. 1, 7, 26: mensis Romani anni, Col. 11, 2, 3: addere principi Limo particulam, Hor. C. 1, 16, 13: dies imperii princeps, vitae supremus, Tac. A. 1, 9.

The first, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble (syn. primores): longe omnium gravitate princeps Plato, Cic. Or. 19, 62: Eudoxus in astrologiā facile princeps, id. Div. 2, 42, 87: quaedam principes feminae, certain noble ladies, Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 119: principe loco genitus, id. 37, 2, 11, § 40.—Prov.: principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 35. —Rarely of things: gemma princeps Sardonychus, Juv. 13, 138.

As subst.: princeps, cĭpis, m., the first man, first person: princeps senatŭs, the first senator on the censor's list, the first member of the Senate, Liv. 34, 44.

Esp., the first, chief, principal, most distinguished person: quales in re publicā principes essent, talis reliquos solere esse civis, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 12: juventutis, one of the noblest of the Roman knights, id. Vatin. 10, 24: trecenti conjuravimus principes juventutis Romanae, i. e. high-born or patrician youths, Liv. 2, 12, 15 (= proceres juventutis, id. 10, 28, 7); 42, 61, 5.—In the time of the emperors this was also a title of honor given to the prince, the heir to the empire, Tac. A. 1, 3: sacerdotum, the high-priest, Vulg. Act. 4, 6.

A chief, head, author, originator, leader, contriver, etc.: princeps atque architectus sceleris, Cic. Clu. 22, 60: Zeno eorum (Stoicorum) princeps non tam rerum inventor fuit, quam verborum novorum, id. Fin. 3, 2, 5: princeps Argonautarum, i. e. Jason, id. Tusc. 4, 32, 69: principes consilii publici, i. e. senatus, id. Sest. 45, 97: conjurationis, id. Cat. 1, 11, 27: eorum omnium hic dux est atque princeps, id. Har. Resp. 26, 57: regendae civitatis dux et sententiae princeps in senatu, id. de Or. 3, 17, 63: (pueri) aequalium principes, first among their playfellows, id. Fin. 5, 22, 61: gregis, i. e. of players, Suet. Calig. 58: principes sententiarum consulares, who were first asked for their opinion, Liv. 8, 21: hujus consilii principes, Caes. B. G. 2, 14: belli inferendi, first in commencing hostilities, id. ib. 5, 52: jam princeps equitum, at the head of, Juv. 4, 32.—Of ancestors: hinc Dardanus ortus Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum, Verg. A. 3, 168 (cf., in this sense, principium, Sil. 15, 748; v. principium, II. B. 2.).

A chief, superior, director (ante- and post-class.): principes, qui utrique rei praeponuntur, Varr. R. R. 1, 2; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 32.

A prince, i. e. a ruler, sovereign, emperor (poet. and post-Aug.): hic ames dici pater atque princeps, Hor. C. 1, 2, 50; Ov. P. 1, 2, 123; Tac. A. 1, 1: quae non faciet quod principis uxor, Juv. 6, 617; 8, 224.

In milit. lang.: princĭpes, um, m., the second line of soldiers, between the hastati and triarii, Liv. 8, 8; 22, 5; 30, 8; 37, 39; cf. Varr. L. L. 5, § 89; Veg. Mil. 1, 20; 2, 15; cf. Ov. F. 3, 129; and Becker, Antiq. 3, 2, p. 249 sq.; p. 269 sq.—Princeps also signifies, A company or division of the principes: signum primi principis, of the first company of the principes, Liv. 26, 6, 1: octavum principem duxit, was centurion of the eighth maniple, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 8, 2.

A centurion or captain of the principes: princeps prior, the first captain of the principes, Caes. B. C. 3, 64 fin.: princeps tertiae legionis, Liv. 25, 14; cf. id. 42, 34.

The office of centurion of the principes, the centurionship or captaincy of the principes: mihi primus princeps prioris centuriae est adsignatus, the first captaincy of the principes, Liv. 42, 34, 8.—Comp.: omnium priorum principum principiorem, si dici fas est, Cassiod. Hist. Eccl. 1, 1.