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Lewis : asper

asper, asper, ĕra, ĕrum, adj. (aspra = aspera, Enn. ap. App. Mag. p. 299, but Vahl. ad Enn. p. 166 reads spissa instead of aspra: aspris = asperis, Verg. A. 2, 379; aspro = aspero, Pall. Insit. 67) [etym. dub.; Doed. foll. by Hinter connects it with ἀσπαίρω, to struggle, to resist; Corssen, Ausspr. II. p. 593, regards asper (i. e. ab spe) as the proper opposite of prosper (i. e. pro spe); thus asper originally meant hopeless, desperate; v. also id. ib. II. p. 870; cf. the use of res asperae as the opposite of res prosperae]; as affecting the sense of touch, rough, uneven (opp. lēvis or lenis; syn.: scaber, acutus, insuavis, acerbus, amarus, mordax, durus). Lit.: lingua aspera tactu, Lucr. 6, 1150; cf. Verg. G. 3, 508; Ov. M. 7, 556; Luc. 4, 325: mixta aspera levibus, Lucr. 2, 471: in locis (spectatur) plani an montuosi, leves an asperi, Cic. Part. Or. 10, 36: Quid judicant sensus? dulce, amarum; lene, asperum, id. Fin. 2, 12, 36: tumulus asperi (sc. saxibus) soli, Liv. 25, 36: saxa, Enn. ap. Cic. Pis. 19; Cic. Tusc. 1, 16, 37; Pac. ap. Mar. Vict. p. 2522 P.; Att. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 10, 23; Lucr. 4, 147; Ov. M. 6, 76; cf. Leucas, Luc. 1, 42: loca, Caes. B. C. 3, 42, and Vulg. Act. 27, 29: viae asperae, ib. Bar. 4, 26: vallis aspera, ib. Deut. 21, 4 et saep.: unda, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2: glacies, Verg. E. 10, 49: hiems, Ov. M. 11, 490; Claud. ap. Prob. Cons. 270: Phasis, i. e. frozen, ice-bound, Prob. ap. Rufin. I. 375; and of climate: aspera caelo Germania, harsh, severe, Tac. G. 2: arteria. the windpipe (v. arteria), Cic. N. D. 2, 54, 136; Cels. 4, 1.—Of raised work (i. e. bas-relief, etc., as being rough), as in Gr. τραχύς (cf. exaspero): aspera signis Pocula, Verg. A. 9, 263: Cymbiaque argento perfecta atque aspera signis, id. ib. 5, 267: signis exstantibus asper Antiquus crater, Ov. M. 12, 235 (cf.: stantem extra pocula caprum, Juv. 1, 76): Summus inaurato crater erat asper acantho, Ov. M. 13, 701: aspera pocula, Prop. 2, 6, 17: ebur, Sen. Hippol. 899: balteus, Val. Fl. 5, 578: cingula bacis, Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 89; cf. Drak. ad Sil. 11, 279: nummus, not worn smooth, new, Suet. Ner. 44; cf. Sen. Ep. 19: mare, agitated by a storm, rough, tempestuous, Liv. 37, 16.—Of things that have a rough, thorny, prickly exterior: barba, Tib. 1, 8, 32: sentes, Verg. A. 2, 379: rubus, id. E. 3, 89: mucro, Luc. 7, 139 (cf. Tac. A. 15, 54: pugionem vetustate obtusum asperari saxo jussit; v. aspero).

Meton., of food: He. Asper meus victus sanest. Er. Sentisne essitas? He. My fare is very rough. Er. Do you feed on brambles? Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 85; cf. id. ib. 3, 1, 37; also of a cough producing hoarseness: quas (fauces) aspera vexat Assidue tussis, Mart. 11, 86, 1.

Subst.: aspĕrum, i, n., an uneven, rough place: latens in asperis radix, Hor. Epod. 5, 67: aspera maris, Tac. A. 4, 6: propter aspera et confragosa, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 53: per aspera et devia, Suet. Tib. 60: erunt aspera in vias planas, Vulg. Isa. 40, 4; ib. Luc. 3, 5.—Also in the sup. absol.: asperrimo hiemis Ticinum usque progressus, Tac. A. 3, 5.

Transf. Of taste, rough, harsh, sour, bitter, brackish, acrid, pungent: asperum, Pater, hoc (vinum) est: aliud lenius, sodes, vide, Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 49: asper sapor maris, Plin. 2, 100, 104, § 222: allium asperi saporis; quo plures nuclei fuere, hoc est asperius, id. 19, 6, 34, § 111: asperrimum piper, id. 12, 7, 14, § 27: acetum quam asperrimum, id. 20, 9, 39, § 97.

Of sound, rough, harsh, grating, etc.: (pronuntiationis genus) lene, asperum, Cic. de Or. 3, 57, 216.—Hence a poet. epithet of the letter R (also called littera canina), Ov. F. 5, 481.—In rhetoric, rough, rugged, irregular: quidam praefractam et asperam compositionem probant; virilem putant et fortem, quae aurem inaequalitate percutiat, Sen. Ep. 114; cf. Cic. Or. 16, 53: duram potius atque asperam compositionem malim esse quam effeminatam et enervem, Quint. 9, 4, 142. And in gram., spiritus asper, the h sound, the aspirate, Prisc. p. 572 P.

Of smell, sharp, pungent: herba odoris asperi, Plin. 27, 8, 41, § 64.

Trop. Of moral qualities, rough, harsh, hard, violent, unkind, rude (cf.: acerbus, acer, and Wagner ad Verg. A. 1, 14): quos naturā putes asperos atque omnibus iniquos, Cic. Planc. 16, 40: orator truculentus, asper, maledicus, id. Brut. 34, 129: aspera Juno, Verg. A. 1, 279: juvenis monitoribus asper, Hor. A. P. 163: patres vestros, asperrimos illos ad condicionem pacis, Liv. 22, 59; cf. id. 2, 27: rebus non asper egenis, Verg. A. 8, 365: cladibus asper, exasperated, Ov. M. 14, 485: asperaque est illi difficilisque Venus, unfriendly, Tib. 1, 9, 20; cf. id. 1, 6, 2: (Galatea) acrior igni, Asperior tribulis, fetā truculentior ursā, Ov. M. 13, 803: Quam aspera est nimium sapientia indoctis hominibus, Vulg. Eccli. 6, 21: asper contemptor divom Mezentius, Verg. A. 7, 647: aspera Pholoe, coy, Hor. C. 1, 33, 6.—Of a harsh, austere, rigid view of life, or manner of living: accessit istuc doctrina (sc. Stoicorum) non moderata nec mitis, sed paulo asperior et durior quam aut veritas aut natura patiatur, Cic. Mur. 29: (Stoici) horridiores evadunt, asperiores, duriores et oratione et verbis, id. Fin. 4, 28, 78 (v. asperitas, II. A.): (Cato) asperi animi et linguae acerbae et immodice liberae fuit, sed rigidae innocentiae, Liv. 39, 40: (Karthago) studiis asperrima belli, Verg. A. 1, 14, ubi v. Wagner: Camilla aspera, id. ib. 11, 664; cf.: gens laboribus et bellis asperrima, Just. 2, 3: virgo aspera, i. e. Diana, Sen. Med. 87.

Of animals, wild, savage, fierce: (anguis) asper siti atque exterritus aestu, Verg. G. 3, 434: bos aspera cornu, i. e. minax, id. ib. 3, 57; cf. Hor. Epod. 6, 11: ille (lupus) asper Saevit, Verg. A. 9, 62: lupus dulcedine sanguinis asper, Ov. M. 11, 402: ille (leo) asper retro redit, Verg. A. 9, 794: tigris aspera, Hor. C. 1, 23, 9; 3, 2, 10: (equus) asper frena pati, Sil. 3, 387.

Of things, rough, harsh, troublesome, adverse, calamitous, cruel, etc. (most freq. in the poets): in periculis et asperis temporibus, Cic. Balb. 9: qui labores, pericula, dubias atque asperas res facile toleraverant, Sall. C. 10, 2: mala res, spes multo asperior, (our) circumstances are bad, (our) prospects still worse, id. ib. 20, 13: venatus, Verg. A. 8, 318: bellum, Sall. J. 48, 1; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 7: pugna, Verg. A. 11, 635; 12, 124: fata, id. ib. 6, 882: odia, id. ib. 2, 96.—Absol.: multa aspera, Prop. 1, 18, 13; Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 21 al.—Of discourse, severe, abusive: asperioribus facetiis perstringere aliquem, Cic. Planc. 14; Tac. A. 15, 68: verba, Tib. 4, 4, 14; Ov. P. 2, 6, 8; Vulg. Psa. 90, 3: vox, Curt. 7, 1.—Adv. Old form asperĭter, roughly, harshly: cubare, Naev. ap. Non. p. 513, 21; Plaut. ap. Prisc. p. 1010 P.

Class. form aspĕrē (in fig. signif.), roughly, harshly, severely, vehemently, etc. Transf.: loqui, Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 45; Quint. 6, 5, 5: dicere, id. 2, 8, 15: syllabae aspere coëuntes, id. 1, 1, 37.

Trop.: aspere accipere aliquid, Tac. A. 4, 31: aspere et acerbe accusare aliquem, Cic. Fam. 1, 5, 6: aspere agere aliquid, Liv. 3, 50: aspere et ferociter et libere dicta, Cic. Planc. 13, 33; Quint. 6, 3, 28: aspere et vehementer loqui, Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 227: ne quid aspere loquaris, * Vulg. Gen. 31, 24.

Comp.: asperius loqui aliquid, Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 227: asperius scribere de aliquo, id. Att. 9, 15.—Sup.: asperrime loqui in aliquem, Cic. Att. 2, 22, 5: asperrime pati aliquid, Sen. Ira, 3, 37, 1: asperrime saevire in aliquem, Vell. 2, 7.