Close Window

Lewis : refero

refero, rĕfĕro, rettŭli (also written retuli), rĕlātum (rēlātum or rellatum, Lucr. 2, 1001), rĕferre, v. a. irr., to bear, carry, bring, draw, or give back (very freq. and class.; cf.: reduco, reporto, retraho). Lit. Ingen.: zonas, quas plenas argenti extuli, eas ex provinciā inanes rettuli, C. Gracchus ap. Gell. 15, 12 fin.: arma, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 25: vasa domum, id. Poen. 4, 2, 25; cf.: pallam domum, id. Men. 5, 7, 59; 4, 2, 97; 98; cf.: anulum ad me, id. Cas. 2, 1, 1; and simply pallam, spinther, id. Men. 3, 3, 16; 5, 1, 5; 5, 2, 56: secum aurum, id. Aul. 4, 5, 4: exta, id. Poen. 2, 44: uvidum rete sine squamoso pecu, id. Rud. 4, 3, 5: aestus aliquem in portum refert, id. As. 1, 3, 6: Auster me ad tribulos tuos Rhegium rettulit, Cic. Fam. 12, 25, 3: ut naves eodem, unde erant profectae, reterrentur, Caes. B. G. 4, 28: me referunt pedes in Tusculanum, Cic. Att. 15, 16, B; cf.: aliquem lecticae impositum domum, Suet. Caes. 82; and: in Palatium, id. Vit. 16: intro referre pedem, to turn one's feet back, to return, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 50; cf.: incertus tuum cave ad me rettuleris pedem, id. Ep. 3, 4, 3: caelo rettulit illa pedem, Ov. H. 16, 88; 15, 186: fertque refertque pedes, id. F. 6, 334 (for a different use of the phrase, v. infra B. 2.): in decimum vestigia rettulit annum (victoria), Verg. A. 11, 290: in convivia gressum, Sil. 11, 355: in thalamos cursum, id. 8, 89: ad nomen caput ille refert, turns his head, looks back, Ov. M. 3, 245: suumque Rettulit os in se, drew back, concealed, id. ib. 2, 303: ad Tuneta rursum castra refert, Liv. 30, 16: corpus in monumentum, Petr. 113: relatis Lacedaemona (ossibus), Just. 3, 3, 12: gemmam non ad os, sed ad genas, Ov. Tr. 5, 4, 5: digitos ad os referre, to draw back (v. digitus), Quint. 11, 3, 103: digitos ad frontem saepe, Ov. M. 15, 567: manum ad capulum, Tac. A. 15, 58 fin.: rursus enses vaginae, Sil. 7, 508: pecunias monumentaque, in templum, Caes. B. C. 2, 21: caput ejus in castra, id. B. G. 5, 58: vulneratos in locum tutum, id. B. C. 2, 41: cornua (urorum) in publicum, id. B. G. 6, 28: frumentum omne ad se referri jubet, id. ib. 7, 71: signa militaria, scutum, litteras ad Caesarem, id. ib. 7, 88; id. B. C. 3, 53; 3, 99; id. B. G. 1, 29; 5, 49: Caesaris capite relato, id. B. C. 3, 19 fin. — Esp.: referre se, to go back, return: Romam se rettulit, Cic. Fl. 21, 50: sese in castra, Caes. B. C. 1, 72 fin.: se huc, id. ib. 2, 8, 2: domum me Ad porri catinum, Hor. S. 1, 6, 115: sese ab Argis (Juno), Verg. A. 7, 286: se ab aestu, Ov. M. 14, 52; cf.: se de Britannis ovans, Tac. A. 13, 32: causam Cleanthes offert, cur se sol referat, Cic. N. D. 3, 14, 37.

Pass. in mid. sense, to return, arrive: sin reiciemur, tamen eodem paulo tardius referamur necesse est, Cic. Tusc. 1, 49, 119: classem relatam, Verg. A. 1, 390: nunc Itali in tergum versis referuntur habenis, Sil. 4, 317; 7, 623.

To withdraw, remove: fines benignitatis introrsus referre, to narrow, Sen. Ben. 1, 14, 5: Seleucia ab mari relata, remote, Plin. 5, 27, 22, § 93.

In partic. To give back something due; to give up, return, restore, pay back, repay (= reddere): scyphos, quos utendos dedi Philodamo, rettuleritne? Plaut. As. 2, 4, 34; cf. id. Aul. 4, 10, 29; 37; 38; and, pateram (surreptam), Cic. Div. 1, 25, 54: argentum, Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 29; so (with reddere) id. Curc. 5, 3, 45: mercedem (with reddere), id. As. 2, 4, 35; cf.: octonis idibus aera, to pay the money for tuition. Hor. S. 1, 6, 75 (v. idus): si non Rettuleris pannum, id. Ep. 1, 17, 32; 1, 6, 60: verum, si plus dederis, referam, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 112.

Referre pedem or gradum, as a milit. t. t., to draw back, retire, withdraw, retreat (different from the gen. signif., to return, and the above passages): vulneribus defessi pedem referre coeperunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 25; cf.: ut paulatim cedant ac pedem referant, id. B. C. 2, 40; Liv. 7, 33; so, referre pedem, Caes. B. C. 1, 44 (with loco excedere); Cic. Phil. 12, 3 (opp. insistere); Liv. 3, 60 (opp. restituitur pugna); 21, 8 al.

For the sake of euphony: referre gradum: cum pedes referret gradum, Liv. 1, 14.

And, in a like sense, once mid.: a primā acie ad triarios sensim referebatur, Liv. 8, 8, 11.

Transf., out of the milit. sphere: feroque viso retulit retro pedem (viator), Phaedr. 2, 1, 8; cf.: viso rettulit angue pedem, Ov. F. 2, 342; 6, 334: rettulit ille gradus horrueruntque comae, id. ib. 2, 502: (in judiciis) instare proficientibus et ab iis, quae non adjuvant, quam mollissime pedem oportet referre, Quint. 6, 4, 19. Trop., to bear or carry back, to bring, draw, or give back. In gen.: (Saxum) ejulatu ... Resonando mutum flebiles voces refert, Att. ap. Cic. Fin. 2, 29, 94 (Trag. Rel. p. 176 Rib.); cf. Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 14, § 42: sonum, id. N. D. 2, 57, 144; id. Or. 12, 38; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 201 al.: voces, Ov. M. 12, 47; cf.: Coëamus rettulit Echo, id. ib. 3, 387: cum ex CXXV. judicibus reus L. referret, restored to the list, i. e. retained, accepted (opp. quinque et LXX. reiceret), Cic. Planc. 17: o mihi praeteritos referat si Juppiter annos! Verg. A. 8, 560; cf.: tibi tempora, Hor. C. 4, 13, 13: festas luces (sae culum), id. ib. 4, 6, 42: dies siccos (sol), id. ib. 3, 29, 20 et saep.: hoc quidem jam periit: Ni quid tibi hinc in spem referas, Plaut. Ep. 3, 2, 3: ad amicam meras querimonias referre, id. Truc. 1, 2, 65: hic in suam domum ignominiam et calamitatem rettulit, Cic. Off. 1, 39, 138; cf.: pro re certā spem falsam domum rettulerunt, id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110: rem publicam sistere negat posse, nisi ad equestrem ordinem judicia referantur, id. Verr. 2, 3, 96, § 223: servati civis decus referre, Tac. A. 3, 21: e cursu populari referre aspectum in curiam, to turn back, turn towards, Cic. Prov. Cons. 16, 38; cf.: oculos animumque ad aliquem, id. Quint. 14, 47: animum ad studia, id. de Or. 1, 1, 1: animum ad veritatem, id. Rosc. Am. 16, 48: animum ad firmitudinem, Tac. A. 3, 6 et saep.: multa dies variique labor mutabilis aevi Rettulit in melius, brought to a better state, Verg. A. 11, 426: uterque se a scientiae delectatione ad efficiendi utilitatem refert, Cic. Rep. 5, 3, 5; so, se ad philosophiam referre, to go back, return, id. Off. 2, 1, 4: ut eo, unde digressa est, referat se oratio, id. ib. 2, 22, 77.

In partic. (Acc. to I. B. 1.) To pay back, give back, repay (syn. reddo): denique Par pari referto, Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 55; cf.: quod ab ipso adlatum est, id sibi esse relatum putet, id. Phorm. prol. 21: ut puto, non poteris ipsa referre vicem, pay him back in his own coin, Ov. A. A. 1, 370; Sen. Herc. Fur. 1337.

Esp. in the phrase referre gratiam (rarely gratias), to return thanks, show one's gratitude (by deeds), to recompense, requite (cf.: gratiam habeo): spero ego mihi quoque Tempus tale eventurum, ut tibi gratium referam parem, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 39: parem gratiam, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 51: et habetur et refertur, Thais, a me ita, uti merita es, gratia, id. ib. 4, 6, 12; cf.: meritam gratiam debitamque, Cic. de Or. 3, 4, 14: justam ac debitam gratiam, id. Balb. 26, 59: pro eo mihi ac mereor relaturos esse gratiam, id. Cat. 4, 2, 3; 1, 11, 28; id. Off. 2, 20, 69: fecisti ut tibi numquam referre gratiam possim, Plaut. Capt. 5, 1, 12; id. Most. 1, 3, 57; id. Pers. 5, 2, 71; id. Ps. 1, 3, 86; id. Rud. 5, 3, 36 al.; Cic. Lael. 15, 53; Caes. B. G. 1, 35: alicui pro ejus meritis gratiam referre, id. ib. 5, 27 fin.; id. B. C. 2, 39; 3, 1, fin.: gratiam emeritis, Ov. P. 1, 7, 61: gratiam factis, id. Tr. 5, 4, 47.

Plur.: pro tantis eorum in rem publicam meritis honores ei habeantur gratiaeque referantur, Cic. Phil. 3, 15, 39; 10, γ : de hoc (sc. Eumene) Antigonus ad consilium rettulit, Nep. Eum. 12, 1.—Transf., to make a reference, to refer (class.): de rebus et obscuris et incertis ad Apollinem censeo referendum; ad quem etiam Athenienses publice de majoribus rebus semper rettulerunt, Cic. Div. 1, 54, 122; cf. Nep. Lys. 3; Cic. Quint. 16, 53.

Different from this is, * Referre ad populum (for denuo ferre), to propose or refer any thing anew to the people (cf. supra, II. B. 2.; v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 1006): factum est illorum aequitate et sapientiā consulum, ut id, quod senatus decreverat, id postea referendum ad populum non arbitrarentur, Cic. Clu. 49, 137; cf. Att. ap. Non. p. 512, 29; Liv. 22, 20; Val. Max. 8, 10, 1.

A mercantile and publicists' t. t., to note down, enter any thing in writing; to inscribe, register, record, etc.: cum scirem, ita indicium in tabulas publicas relatum, Cic. Sull. 15, 42: in tabulas quodcumque commodum est, id. Fl. 9, 20: nomen in tabulas, in codicem, id. Rosc. Com. 1, 4: quod reliquum in commentarium, id. Att. 7, 3, 7: quid in libellum, id. Phil. 1, 8, 19: tuas epistulas in volumina, i. e. to admit, id. Fam. 16, 17 init.; cf.: orationem in Origines, id. Brut. 23, 89 al.: in reos, in proscriptos referri, to be set down among, id. Rosc. Am. 10, 27: absentem in reos, id. Verr. 2, 5, 42, § 109; cf.: aliquem inter proscriptos, Suet. Aug. 70: anulos quoque depositos a nobilitate, in annales relatum est, Plin. 33, 1, 6, § 18: senatūs consulta falsa (sc. in aerarium), enter, register, Cic. Fam. 12, 1, 1; id. Phil. 5, 4, 12. —Entirely absol.: ut nec triumviri accipiundo nec scribae referundo sufficerent, Liv. 26, 36 fin.—Here, too, belongs referre rationes or aliquid (in rationibus, ad aerarium, ad aliquem, alicui), to give, present, or render an account: rationes totidem verbis referre ad aerarium, Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 2; and rationes referre alone: in rationibus referendis ... rationum referendarum jus, etc., id. ib. 5, 20, 1; id. Pis. 25, 61; id. Verr. 2, 1, 30, § 77; 2, 3, 71, § 167: referre rationes publicas ad Caesarem cum fide, Caes. B. C. 2, 20 fin.: si hanc ex fenore pecuniam populo non rettuleris, reddas societati, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 71, § 167: (pecuniam) in aerarium, Liv. 37, 57, 12; cf.: pecuniam operi publico, to charge to, i. e. to set down as applied to, Cic. Fl. 19, 44.

So, too, acceptum and in acceptum referre, to place to one's credit, in a lit. and trop. sense (v. accipio).

Hence, transf.: aliquem (aliquid) in numero (as above, in rationibus), in numerum, etc., to count or reckon a person or thing among: Democritus, qui imagines eorumque circuitus in deorum numero refert, Cic. N. D. 1, 12, 29: (Caesar, Claudius) in deorum numerum relatus est, Suet. Caes. 88; id. Claud. 45: Ponticus Heraclides terram et caelum refert in deos, Cic. N. D. 1, 13, 34: nostri oratorii libri in Eundem librorum numerum referendi videntur, id. Div. 2, 1, 4: hoc nomen in codicem relatum, id. Rosc. Com. B. and K. (al. in codice).—With inter (postAug. and freq.): ut inter deos referretur (August.), Suet. Aug. 97: diem inter festos, nefastos, Tac. A. 13, 41 fin.: hi tamen inter Germanos referuntur, id. G. 46; Suet. Claud. 11; id. Tib. 53: dumque refert inter meritorum maxima, demptos Aesonis esse situs, Ov. M. 7, 302: intellectum est, quod inter divos quoque referretur, Lampr. Alex. Sev. 14: inter sidera referre, Hyg. Fab. 192: inter praecipua crudelitatis indicia referendus, Val. Max. 9, 2, ext. 5: inter insulas, Plin. 5, 9, 9, § 48: dicebat quasdam esse quaestiones, quae deberent inter res judicatas referri, Sen. Contr. 2, 11, 12: eodem Q. Caepionem referrem, I should place in the same category, Cic. Brut. 62, 223.

Referre aliquid ad aliquid, to trace back, ascribe, refer a thing to any thing: qui pecudum ritu ad voluptatem omnia referunt, Cic. Lael. 9, 32: omnia ad igneam vim, id. N. D. 3, 14, 35: omnia ad incolumitatem et ad libertatem suam, id. Rep. 1, 32, 49; 1, 26, 41: in historiā quaeque ad veritatem, in poëmate pleraque ad delectationem, id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; id. Off. 1, 16, 52 et saep. al.: hunc ipsum finem definiebas id esse, quo omnia, quae recte fierent, referrentur, neque id ipsum usquam referretur, id. Fin. 2, 2, 5; cf. nusquam, id. ib. 1, 9, 29: ad commonendum oratorem, quo quidque referat, id. de Or. 1, 32, 145: hinc omne principium, huc refer exitum, Hor. C. 3, 6, 6.

With dat.: cujus adversa pravitati ipsius, prospera ad fortunam referebat, Tac. A. 14, 38 fin. — In Tac. once with in: quidquid ubique magnificum est, in claritatem ejus (sc. Herculis) referre consensimus, Tac. G. 34.—Rarely of persons; as: tuum est Caesar, quid nunc mihi animi sit, ad te ipsum referre, Cic. Deiot. 2, 7.—Absol.: ita inserere oportet referentem ad fructum, meliore genere ut sit surculus, etc., one who looks to or cares for the fruit, Varr. R. R. 1, 40, 6.

Culpam in aliquem referre, to throw the blame upon, accuse, hold responsible for, etc. (post-Aug.): hic, quod in adversis rebis solet fieri, alius in alium culpam referebant, Curt. 4, 3, 7; Aug. contr. Man. 2, 17, 25 Hier. Epp. 1, 9 fin.: cf.: augere ejus, in quem referet crimen, culpam, Cic. Inv. 2, 28, 83: causa ad matrem referebatur, Tac. A. 6, 49: causam abscessus ad Sejani artes, id. ib. 4, 57.