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Lewis : saevus

saevus, saevus, a, um (collat. form saevis, e; in gen. plur. saevium, Amm. 15, 9; 29, 5), adj. etym. dub.; perh. akin with scaevus, q. v., roused to fierceness (while ferus signifies naturally fierce); raging, furious, fell, savage, ferocious, etc. (mostly poet.) Lit., of animals: leones, Lucr. 3, 306; 4, 1016; cf.: saecla leonum, id. 5, 862: leaena, Tib. 3, 4, 90: lea, Ov. M. 4, 102: saevior leaena, Verg. G. 3, 246: apri, Lucr. 5, 1327: sues, id. 5, 1309: lupi, Tib. 1, 5, 54: canes, Prop. 4 (5), 4, 40; Ov. M. 7, 64: ferae, Tib. 1, 10, 6; Ov. M. 4, 404; 7, 387: belua, Hor. C. 1, 12, 22.

Transf., of any vehement, passionate excitement, fierce, cruel, violent, harsh, severe, fell, dire, barbarous, etc. (syn.: crudelis, inmitis, trux, durus). Of persons: nunc truculento mihi atque saevo usus sene est, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 5, 3; so (with truculentus) id. Truc. 3, 2, 5; cf.: agrestis, saevus, tristis, parcus, truculentus, etc., Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 12: gens, Cic. poët. Tusc. 2, 8, 20: ex amore saevus, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 43: uxor, cross, Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 17: vir, Hor. C. 3, 10, 2: custos, id. Ep. 1, 16, 77: magister, id. ib. 1, 18, 13: novercae, Verg. G. 2, 128: Canidia, Hor. Epod. 5, 47: Tisiphone, id. S. 1, 8, 33: mater Cupidinum, id. C. 1, 19, 1; 4, 1, 5: Juno, Verg. A. 1, 4; cf.: conjux Jovis, Ov. M. 9, 199: Proserpina, Hor. C. 1, 28, 20: Necessitas, id. ib. 1, 35, 17: tyrannus, Ov. M. 6, 581; cf.: cum tyranno saevissimo et violentissimo in suos, Liv. 34, 32: saevus metu, Suet. Dom. 3: aliquanto post civilis belli victoriam saevior, id. ib. 10: post cujus interitum vel saevissimus exstitit, id. Tib. 61: saevorum saevissime Centaurorum, Euryte, Ov. M. 12, 219 et saep.: saevus in armis Aeneas acuit Martem, terrible, δεινός, Verg. A. 12, 107: Hector, id. ib. 1, 99; Ov. M. 13, 177: Achilles, id. ib. 12, 582: sed manibus qui saevus erit, Tib. 1, 10, 67: nimium in pellice saevae deae, Ov. M. 4, 547: videt Atridas Priamumque et saevum ambobus Achillem, Verg. A. 1, 458: saevus accusandis reis, Tac. A. 11, 5: duces, Hor. C. 3, 16, 16.—Poet., with inf. (cf. saevio, II. A.): quaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere saevus, Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 30; cf. in comp.: saevior ante alios iras servasse, Sil. 11, 7.

Of things: mare, Naev. ap. Fest. s. v. topper, p. 352 Müll.; Sall. J. 17, 5: pelagus, Ov. M. 14, 559: fluctus, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 4: procellae, Lucr. 3, 805: undae, id. 5, 222: saevi exsistunt turbines, Poët. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39, 157: ventus, Cic. Att. 5, 12; Liv. 28, 18; Ov. M. 12, 8: tempestates, Lucil. ap. Non. 388, 17; Lucr. 6, 458; Liv. 24, 8; cf. hiems, id. 40, 45; Val. Fl. 7, 52: Orion, Verg. A. 7, 719: scopulus, id. ib. 5, 270: ignes, Prop. 1, 1, 27; Ov. M. 2, 313; Hor. C. 1, 16, 11: bipennis, Ov. M. 8, 766: falx Priapi, Tib. 1, 1, 18: catenae, Hor. C. 3, 11, 45: tympana, sounding harshly or terribly, id. ib. 1, 18, 13 et saep.: saevo ac duro in bello, Lucil. ap. Non. 388, 15; so, bellum, Lucr. 1, 475: saeva et tristia dicta, Lucil. ap. Non. 388, 23: unde superstitiosa primum saeva evasit vox fera, Poët. ap. Cic. Div. 2, 56, 115: minae, Prop. 1, 17, 6 sq.: verba, Hor. Epod. 12, 13: jocus, id. Ep. 2, 1, 148; id. C. 1, 33, 12: naves, id. ib. 1, 37, 30: militia, id. Ep. 1, 18, 54: cum ex saevis et perditis rebus ad meliorem statum fortuna revocatur, Cic. Rep. Fragm. 6, p. 419 Osann (5, p. 247 B. and K.; ap. Amm. 15, 5, 23): Medea amore saevo saucia, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 22, 34; and ap. Cic. Cael. 8, 18 (Trag. v. 288 Vahl.); so, Amor, Verg. E. 8, 47: horror, id. A. 12, 406: verbera, id. G. 3, 252: ira, Prop. 1, 18, 14: damna, Tac. A. 2, 26: adulationes, id. ib. 4, 20: caedes, Ov. M. 1, 161: dolores, Verg. A. 1, 25: ira, Ov. M. 1, 453: paupertas, Hor. C. 1, 12, 43: quae sibi belligeranti saeva vel prospera evenissent, Tac. A. 2, 5: ut saeva et detestanda Quirinio clamitarent, id. ib. 3, 23: multa saevaque questus, id. ib. 1, 6.

Adv., in three forms, saeve, saeviter (anteclass.), and saevum (in post-Aug. poets), fiercely, furiously, ferociously, cruelly, barbarously, etc. saevē: saeve et atrociter factitavit, Suet. Tib. 59: facere omnia, Luc. 8, 492: gesturus impia bella, id. 7, 171.

saevĭter: ferro cernunt de victoriā, Enn. ap Non. 511, 8; Att. and Afran. ib. 4, 7; Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 3; id. Poen. 1, 2, 122; id. Trin. 4, 3, 53.

saevum: cui arridens, Sil. 1, 398; Stat. Th. 3, 589; Claud. Rapt. Pros. 1, 285.

Comp.: lumina Gorgoneo saevius igne micant, Ov. A. A. 3, 504; Plin. 30, 2, 5, § 15; Hor. C. 2, 10, 9.

Sup.: sunt (loca), quae tepent hieme, sed aestate saevissime candent, Col. 1, 4, 9; Claud. ap. Suet. Claud. 2: saevissime dentiunt, Plin. 11, 37, 64, § 170.