Close Window

Lewis : severus

severus, sĕvērus, a, um, adj. perh. kindr. with serius, serious, grave, strict, austere, stern, severe in aspect, demeanor, conduct, etc. (of persons and things; serius regularly only of things; v. serius; class. and freq.). Of persons: nam te omnes saevom severumque commemorant, Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 6: quam severus! Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 21; id. Eun. 2, 1, 21: civis severus et gravis, Cic. Lael. 25, 95; cf.: omnium gravissimus et severissimus, etc., id. de Or. 2, 56, 228: Tubero (Stoicus) vitā severus, id. Brut. 31, 117; cf.: Stoicorum secta severissima, Quint. 1, 10, 15: agricolae, hardended by toil, rugged, Lucr. 5, 1357: Cures, Verg. A. 8, 638: Zethus, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 42; cf. in comp.: rumores senum severiorum, Cat. 5, 2.—Of those who live a sober and temperate life: at vos hinc abite, lymphae, Vini pernicies et ad severos Migrate, Cat. 27, 6: adimam cantare severis, Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 10; 1, 5, 13: legis custodes, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 5, 18: neque severus esse (potest) in judicando, qui alios in se severos esse judices non vult, id. Imp. Pomp. 13, 38; so, judices severi in eos solos, id. Clu. 20, 56; cf.: severissimos atque integerrimos judices, id. Verr. 1, 10, 30: ex familiā ad judicandum severissimā, id. ib.: ubi haec severus te palam laudaveram, Hor. Epod. 11, 19: auctor e severissimis, Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274: Aristolaus e severissimis pictoribus fuit, id. 35, 11, 40, § 137 (for which, just before: austerior colore).

In a bad sense, harsh, rough, crabbed, rigid, severe (rare): Neptunus saevus severusque, Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 6: idem acerbe severus in filium, Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112 dub. (a passage bracketed by B. and K.): in me severior quam in vos, Liv. 7, 40, 7; Plin. Ep. 9, 13, 21: Eumenidum turba, Prop. 4 (5), 11, 22; cf. II. B.

Of things, grave, serious, severe, austere, etc.: severā fronte curas cogitans, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 46: vultus severior et tristior, Cic. de Or. 2, 71, 289; cf. Hor. A. P 107: frons, Ov. Tr. 2, 241: Falernum, rough, sharp, tart (syn. austerum), Hor. C. 1, 27, 9: divaeque (Palladis) severas Fronde ligare comas, Stat. Achill. 1, 288: animus (opp. mitis), Quint. 3, 9, 7: disciplina maxime severa, id. 1, 2, 5: imperia severiora, Cic. Tusc. 4, 19, 43: judicia severa, id. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 133: lex, Ov. P. 3, 3, 57: severiora judicia, Quint. 4, 2, 122: severiores leges, id. 12, 1, 40; cf.: Lycurgus severissimarum justissimarumque legum auctor, Vell. 1, 6, 3: imperii severissimi vir, Liv. 4, 26: quod ego dixi per jocum, Id eventurum esse et severum et serium, Plaut. Poen. 5, 3, 51: linque severa, Hor. C. 3, 8, 28: paulo severior poena, Sall. C. 51, 15.—Of style: sententiae graves et severae, Cic. Brut. 95, 325: triste et severum genus dicendi, id. ib. 30, 113; so Quint. 2, 4, 6; 6, 3, 102; 9, 4, 63 sq.; 10, 1, 131 al.; cf.: severae Musa tragoediae, Hor. C. 2, 1, 9: fidibus voces crevere severis, id. A. P. 216.

Severe, dreadful, gloomy: severus Uncus abest, Hor. C. 1, 35, 19: silentia noctis, Lucr. 4, 460: heims, Quint. Decl. 4, 14: amnem Cocyti metuet, Verg. G. 3, 37; cf. absol.: Si. Accurrite, Ne se interimat ... Me. Hau! voluisti istuc severum facere? this horrible deed, Plaut. Cist. 3, 15 (but in Lucr. 5, 35 the correct read. is pelage sonora; v. Lachm. ad h. l.).—Hence, adv., in three forms, severe (class.), severiter (anteand post-class.), and severum (post-class.). sĕvērē, gravely, seriously, austerely, rigidly, severely, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 19: graviter et severe voluptatem secernit a bono, id. Fin. 2, 8, 24: vetuit (with graviter), Quint. 11, 3, 148: uti judicio, id. 1, 3, 4: aestimatae lites, Cic. Mur. 20, 42; 25, 51: vindicare Hiempsalis mortem, Sall. J. 15, 3: dicere, Cic. Off. 1, 37, 134; Quint. 6, 3, 101; 8, 3, 40: domesticam disciplinam regere, Suet. Caes. 48.—Comp.: ad aliquem severius scribere, Caes. B. C. 3, 25: adhibere aliquem, Cic. Att. 10, 12, 3: coërcere matrimonia, Just. 3, 3, 8. —Sup.: sunt qui voluptatem severissime contemnant, Cic. Off. 1, 21, 71; so, exacta aetas, id. Rosc. Com. 15, 44: dicere jus, Suet. Caes. 43.

sĕvērĭter, gravely, seriously, severely: sermonem cum aliquo conferre, Titin. ap. Non. 509, 33; and in Prisc. p. 1010 P.; Plaut., acc. to Prisc. 1. 1.; App. M. 2, p. 126, 33.—* sĕvērum, harshly, austerely: nunc severum vivitur, Prud. Cath. 2, 33.