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Lewis : sidus

sidus, sīdus, ĕris, n. cf. Sanscr. svid, to sweat, melt; Gr. σίδηρος (molten) iron; Lat. sudo. Stars united in a figure, a group of stars, a constellation (and hence mostly plur.; only so ap. Cic., Cæs., and Quint.): sunt stellae quidem singulares, ut erraticae quinque et ceterae, quae non admixtae aliis solae feruntur: sidera vero, quae in aliquod signum stellarum plurium compositione formantur, ut Aries, Taurus, Andromeda, Perseus, vel Corona et quaecumque variarum genera formarum in caelum recepta creduntur. Sic et apud Graecos aster et astron diversa significant et aster stella una est, astron signum stellis coactum, quod nos sidus vocamus, Macr. Somn. Scip. 1, 14 med. Plur.: illi sempiterni ignes, quae sidera et stellas vocatis, Cic. Rep. 6, 15, 15: signis sideribusque caelestibus, id. N. D. 1, 13, 35: circuitus solis et lunae reliquorumque siderum, id. ib. 2, 62, 155; cf.: solem lunamque praecipua siderum, Quint. 2, 16, 6; and: in sole sidera ipsa desinunt cerni, id. 8, 5, 29: siderum regina bicornis Luna, Hor. C. S. 35: Arcturi sidera, Verg. G. 1, 204: solis, i. e. sol, Ov. M. 14, 172: sidera, quae vocantur errantia, Cic. Div. 2, 42, 89; so, errantia, Plin. 2, 8, 6, § 32: siderum motus, Cic. Rep. 3, 2, 3; id. Lael. 23, 88: sidera viderit innumerabilia, id. Tusc. 5, 24, 69; id. Fin. 2, 31, 102; id. N. D. 2, 15, 39 et saep.; * Caes. B. G. 6, 14 fin.; Quint. 1, 4, 4; 2, 17, 38; 12, 11, 10 al.; Lucr. 1, 231; 1, 788; 1, 1065: candida, id. 5, 1210: alta, Verg. A. 3, 619: surgentia, id. ib. 6, 850: radiantia, Ov. M. 7, 325: turbata, Stat. Th. 12, 406 al.: lucida, Hor. C. 1, 3, 2; 3, 1, 32; id. Epod. 3, 15; 5, 45; 17, 5.

Sing., a heavenly body, a star; and collect., a group of stars, a constellation: clarum Tyndaridae sidus, Hor. C. 4, 8, 31: fervidum, Sirius, id. Epod. 1, 27; nivosum sidus Pleiadum, Stat. S. 1, 1, 95: insana Caprae sidera, Hor. C. 3, 7, 6: Baccho placuisse coronam, Ex Ariadnaeo sidere nosse potes, Ov. F. 5, 346; so of the constellation Arcturus, Plin. 18, 31, 74, § 311 (for which, in the plur.: Arcturi sidera, Verg. G. 1, 204); of Capella, Ov. M. 3, 594; of the Vergiliae, Liv. 21, 35, 6; Curt. 5, 6, 12; of Saturn, Plin. 2, 8, 6, § 32 sq.; Juv. 6, 569; of Venus, Plin. 2, 8, 6, § 36; Luc. 1, 661; of the Moon: sidus lunae, Plin. 2, 9, 6, § 41; of the Sun: calidi sideris aestu, Tib. 2, 1, 47: aetherium, Ov. M. 1, 424; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212: solstitiale, Just. 13, 7 fin.; cf.: sidus utrumque, for the rising and setting sun, Petr. poët. 119, 2; and also for the sun and moon, Plin. 2, 13, 10, §§ 56 and 57.—Poet., collect.: nec sidus fefellit, i. e. through ignorance, Verg. A. 7, 215.

Transf. (mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose). The sky, the heavens, = caelum. (Juppiter) terram, mare, sidera movit, Ov. M. 1, 180: (Hercules) flammis ad sidera missus, Juv.11,63; cf.: abrupto sidere nimbus It, Verg. A. 12, 451: sidera observare, Curt. 7, 4, 28.

Like caelum, to denote a very great height: Pyramidum sumptus ad sidera ducti, Prop. 3, 2 (4, 1), 17: evertunt actas ad sidera pinus, Verg. A. 11, 136; cf. Juv. 11, 63: ad sidera Erigitur, Verg. A. 9, 239: aves, quas naturalis levitas ageret ad sidera, Curt. 4, 5, 3: domus quae vertice sidera pulsat, Mart. 8, 36, 11; 9, 62, 10; Verg. G. 2, 427; id. A. 3, 243; id. E. 5, 62 al.

Trop. (also like caelum), as the summit or height of fame, fortune, success, etc.: quodsi me lyricis vatibus inseris, Sublimi feriam sidera vertice, Hor. C. 1, 1, 36: vertice sidera tangere, Ov. M. 7, 61; cf.: tuum nomen ... Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cygni, Verg. E. 9, 29: usque ad sidera notus, id. ib. 5, 43: contingere sidera plantis, to walk upon the stars (like the gods) (of one exceedingly fortunate), Prop. 1, 8, 43 (1, 8 b, 17); cf.: celerique fugā sub sidera lapsae, Verg. A. 3, 243.

For night: exactis sideribus, Prop. 1, 3, 38: sidera producere ludo, Stat. Th. 8, 219; cf.: sideribus dubiis, at dawn, Juv. 5, 22.

A star, as a comparison for any thing bright, brilliant, shining, beautiful, etc. (syn.: stella, astrum): oculi, geminae, sidera nostra, faces, Prop. 2, 3, 14; so of the eyes, Ov. Am. 2, 16, 44; 3, 3, 9; id. M. 1, 499: sidere pulchrior Ille, Hor. C. 3, 9, 21; cf. id. ib. 1, 12, 47; of form, beauty, Stat. S. 3, 4, 26; Val. Fl. 5, 468.

Concr., ornament, pride, glory: o sidus Fabiae, Maxime, gentis ades, Ov. P. 3, 3, 2; cf. id. ib. 4, 6, 9; Col. poët, 10, 96: puerum egregiae praeclarum sidere formae, Stat. S. 3, 4, 26: Macedoniae columen ac sidus, Curt. 9, 6, 8.—As a term of endearment, my star, Suet. Calig. 13 fin.; Hor. Epod. 17, 41.

Season of the year: quo sidere terram Vertere Conveniat, Verg. G. 1, 1; cf.: hiberno moliris sidere classem? id. A. 4, 309: sidere aequinoctii quo maxime tumescit Oceanus, Tac. A. 1, 70; cf.: brumale sidus, Ov. P. 2, 4, 25: sidere flagrante brumali, Amm. 27, 12, 12.

Climate, weather, etc.: ut patrios fontes patriumque sidus ferre consuevisti, Plin. Pan. 15, 3; so, sub nostro sidere, Juv. 12, 103: tot inhospita saxa Sideraque emensae, i.e. regions, Verg. A. 5, 628: grave sidus et imbrem vitare, tempest, storm, Ov. M. 5, 281: triste Minervae (raised by Minerva), Verg. A. 11, 260.—Colloquially, with confectus: intellegitur sidus confectum, i. e. that the weather (occasioned by a constellation) is ended, Plin. 16, 23, 36, § 87; 18, 25, 57, § 207: fertur in abruptum casu, non sidere, puppis, Claud. in Eutr. 2, 424.

With allusion to the influence which the ancients believed the constellations to have upon the health or the destiny of men, star, destiny, etc.: pestifero sidere icti, Liv. 8, 9, 12: sidere afflari, to be blasted or palsied by a constellation, to be planet-struck or sunstruck, ἀστροβολεῖσθαι, Plin. 2, 41, 41, § 108; Petr. 2, 7; cf.: sidere percussa lingua, Mart. 11, 85, 1: subito fias ut sidere mutus, id. 7, 92, 9; v. sideror and sideratio: sidera natalicia, Cic. Div. 2, 43, 91; cf.: o sidere dextro Edite, Stat. S. 3, 4, 63: adveniet fausto cum sidere conjux, Cat. 64, 330: vivere duro sidere, Prop. 1, 6, 36: grave sidus, Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 45 Jahn: per alias civitates ut sidus salutare susciperetur, as arbiter of their destiny, Amm. 21, 10, 2.