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Lewis : spiritus

spiritus, spīrĭtus, ūs (scanned spĭrĭtus, Sedul. Hymn. 1 fin.; dat. SPIRITO, Inscr. Orell. 3030; gen., dat., and abl. plur. only eccl. and late Lat., e. g. spirituum, Vulg. Marc. 6, 7: spiritibus, Aug. Serm. 216, 11 fin.; Vulg. Luc. 8, 2), m. spiro, a breathing or gentle blowing of air, a breath, breeze (syn.: aura, flatus). Lit. In gen.: spiritum a vento modus separat: vehementior enim spiritus ventus est, invicem spiritus leviter fluens aër, Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 4; cf. Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 5: spiritus Austri Imbricitor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 423 Vahl.), Cic. poët. N. D. 2, 44, 114: Boreae, Verg. A. 12, 365: quo spiritus non pervenit, Varr. R. R. 1, 57, 2; cf.: silentis vel placidi spiritus dies, Col. 3, 19 fin.: alvus cum multo spiritu redditur, Cels. 2, 7 med.— In partic. The air: imber et ignis, spiritus et gravis terra, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 37 Müll. (Ann. v. 511 Vahl.): proximum (igni) spiritus, quem Graeci nostrique eodem vocabulo aëra appellant, Plin. 2, 5, 4, § 10: quid tam est commune quam spiritus vivis? Cic. Rosc. Am. 26, 72; cf. Quint. 12, 11, 13: potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut hujus caeli spiritus esse jucundus? Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15.

An exhalation, smell, odor: spiritus unguenti suavis, Lucr. 3, 222: foedi odoris, Cels. 5, 26, 31 fin.: florum, Gell. 9, 4, 10: sulfuris, Pall. Aug. 9, 1; cf. Hor. C. 3, 11, 19.

Breathed air, a breath: quojus tu legiones difflavisti spiritu, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 17.—Absol.: (equus) saepe jubam quassit simul altam: Spiritus ex animā calida spumas agit albas, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 3 (Ann. v. 507 Vahl.): creber spiritus, Lucr. 6, 1186: ardentes oculi atque attractus ab alto Spiritus, Verg. G. 3, 505: petitus imo spiritus, Hor. Epod. 11, 10: in pulmonibus inest raritas ... ad hauriendum spiritum aptissima, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 136: diffunditur spiritus per arterias, id. ib. 2, 55, 138: animantium vita tenetur, cibo, potione, spiritu, id. ib. 2, 54, 134: si spiritum ducit, vivit, id. Inv. 1, 46, 86: tranquillum atque otiosum spiritum ducere, id. Arch. 12, 30: longissima est complexio verborum, quae volvi uno spiritu potest, id. de Or. 3, 47, 182: versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare, id. ib. 1, 61, 261: spiritus nec crebro receptus concidat sententiam, nec eo usque trahatur, donec deficiat, Quint. 11, 3, 53: lusit vir egregius (Socrates) extremo spiritu, Cic. Tusc. 1, 40, 96; cf. id. Sest. 37, 79: quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia, id. Sen. 9, 27: quos idem Deus de suis spiritibus figuravit, Lact. Epit. 42, 3.—With gen.: ut filiorum suorum postremum spiritum ore excipere liceret, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 118; Cels. 4, 4; 3, 27; Col. 6, 9, 3; Quint. 9, 4, 68; 11, 3, 32; 11, 3, 53 sq.

Transf. In abstr., a breathing: aspera arteria excipiat animam eam, quae ducta sit spiritu, Cic. N. D. 2, 54, 136; cf. id. ib. 2, 55, 138: aër spiritu ductus alit et sustentat animantes, id. ib. 2, 39, 101: crevit onus neque habet quas ducat spiritus auras, Ov. M. 12, 517.—Esp.: spiritum intercludere (includere), to stop the breath, suffocate, choke, etc.: lacrimae spiritum et vocem intercluserunt, Liv. 40, 16, 1; 40, 24, 7; so, includere, id. 21, 58, 4.

The breath of a god, inspiration: haec fieri non possent, nisi ea uno divino et continuato spiritu continerentur, by a divine inspiration, Cic. N. D. 2, 7, 19; 3, 11, 28; cf.: poëtam quasi divino quodam spiritu inflari, id. Arch. 8, 18.

The breath of life, life: eum spiritum, quem naturae debeat, patriae reddere, Cic. Phil. 10, 10, 20: vos vero qui extremum spiritum in victoriā effudistis, id. ib. 14, 12, 32: dum spiritus hos regit artus, Verg. A. 4, 336; cf. Hor. C. 4, 8, 14: ne cum sensu doloris aliquo spiritus auferatur, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 118: aliquem spiritu privare, Vell. 2, 87, 2: merula spiritum reddidit, to expire, die, id. 2, 22, 2: spiritus tenues vanescat in auras, Ov. H. 12, 85: non effundere mihi spiritum videbar, sed tradere, Sen. Ep. 78, 4: novissimum spiritum per ludibrium effundere, Tac. H. 3, 66 fin.; cf. supra, I. B.

Poet.,= suspirium, a sigh, Prop. 1, 16, 32; 2, 29 (3, 27), 38.

In gram., a breathing or aspiration (asper and lenis), Prisc. p. 572 P.; Aus. Idyll. 12 de Monos. Graec. et Lat. 19.

The hiss of a snake, Verg. Cul. 180.

Trop. (Class.) A haughty spirit, haughtiness, pride, arrogance; also, spirit, high spirit, energy, courage (esp. freq. in the plur.; syn. animi). Sing. (in the best prose only in gen. and abl., which are wanting in plur.): regio spiritu, Cic. Agr. 2, 34, 93: quem hominem! quā irā! quo spiritu! id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6: illos ejus spiritus Siciliensis, id. Verr. 2, 3, 9, § 22: tantum fiduciae ac spiritūs, Caes. B. C. 3, 72: filia Hieronis, inflata adhuc regiis animis ac muliebri spiritu, Liv. 24, 22: patricii spiritūs animus, id. 4, 42, 5: ex magnitudine rerum spiritum ducat, Quint. 1, 8, 5: corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis Spiritum et incessum, Hor. S. 2, 3, 311: cecidit spiritus ille tuus, Prop. 2, 3, 2: spiritu divino tactus, Liv. 5, 22, 5: non negaverim fuisse alti spiritūs viros, Sen. Ep. 90, 14.

Plur.: res gestae, credo, meae me nimis extulerunt ac mihi nescio quos spiritus attulerunt, Cic. Sull. 9, 27: noratis animos ejus ac spiritus tribunicios, etc., id. Clu. 39, 109; cf.: unius tribuni militum animos ac spiritus, id. Imp. Pomp. 22, 66: tantos sibi spiritus, sumpserat, ut ferendus non videretur, Caes. B. G. 1, 33 fin. in re militari sumere, id. ib. 2, 4: nam Dion regios spiritus repressit, Nep. Dion, 5, 5: cum spiritus plebes sumpsisset, Liv. 4, 54: si cui honores subdere spiritus potuerunt, id. 7, 40: remittant spiritus, comprimant animos suos, sedent arrogantiam, etc., Cic. Fl. 22, 53: spiritus feroces, Liv. 1, 31: quorum se vim ac spiritus fregisse, id. 26, 24: cohibuit spiritus ejus Thrasea, Tac. A. 16, 26: Antipater, qui probe nosset spiritus ejus, Curt. 6, 1, 19.

(Mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose.) Spirit, soul, mind. Sing.: quoslibet occupat artus Spiritus, Ov. M. 15, 167; Tac. A. 16, 34: spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem Carminis dedit, poetic spirit or inspiration, Hor. C. 4, 6, 29; cf.: mihi Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae Parca non mendax dedit, id. ib. 2, 16, 38: qualis Pindarico spiritus ore tonat, Prop. 3, 17 (4, 16), 40: imperator generosi spiritŭs, Plin. 8, 40, 61, § 149: avidus (i. e. τὸ ἐπιθυμητικόν, the desiring, coveting soul), Hor. C. 2, 2, 10: quidam comoedia necne poëma Esset, quaesivere: quod acer spiritus ac vis Nec verbis nec rebus inest, Hor. S. 1, 4, 46: majoris operis ac spiritūs, Quint. 1, 9, 15: alti spiritūs plena, id. 10, 1, 44: virtus magni spiritus est et recti, Sen. Ep. 74, 29: qui spiritus illi, Quis vultus vocisque sonus, Verg. A. 5, 648.

Plur.: Coriolanus hostiles jam tum spiritus gerens, Liv. 2, 35; Curt. 5, 8, 17.—* Transf. (like anima, and the Engl. soul), a beloved object, Vell. 2, 123 fin.— Spiritus, personified, a spirit (late Lat.); so, esp., Spiritus Sanctus or simply Spiritus, the Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, Cod. Just. 1, 1, 1; Aus. Ephem. 2, 18: jurare per Deum et per Christum et per Spiritum Sanctum, Veg. 2, 5: nocens ille Spiritus, an evil spirit, Lact. 4, 27, 12: Spiritus nigri, evil spirits, Sedul. Carm. 3, 41.