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Lewis : supplicium

supplicium supplĭcĭum (subpl-), ii, n. supplex; prop. a kneeling down, either as a suppliant or to receive punishment. As a suppliant. In relig. lang., humiliation, a public prayer or supplication, an act of worship (mostly ante-Aug. and in prose after the Aug. period; not in Cic. or Cæs.; syn.: supplicatio, obsecratio): nunc pergam, ut suppliciis placans caelitum aras expleam, Att. ap. Non. 398, 19; cf.: deos suppliciis, sumptu, votis, donis, Precibus plorans, obsecrans, Afran. ib. 398, 22: suppliciis votisque fatigare deos, Liv. 27, 50, 5: non votis neque suppliciis muliebribus auxilia deorum parantur, Sall. C. 52, 29.

Esp., a sacrificing, offering: nihil ei (Jovi) acceptum est a perjuris supplicii, offering, sacrifice, Plaut. Rud. prol. 25: in suppliciis deorum magnifici, Sall. C. 9, 2; id. J. 55, 1: precibus suppliciisque deos placare, Liv. 22, 57, 5; cf.: quos (boves) ad deorum servant supplicia, Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 10: tum supplicia dis ludique magni ab senatu decernuntur, Tac. A. 3, 64 Nipperd. ad loc.: vannos onustas aromatis et hujuscemodi suppliciis congerunt, App. M. 11, p. 265, 3; id. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 16, 5: supplicia veteres quaedam sacrificia a supplicando vocabant, Fest. pp. 308 and 309 Müll.

Transf., out of the relig. sphere, an humble entreaty or petition, a supplication in gen. (very rare): Vagenses fatigati regis suppliciis, Sall. J. 66, 2: igitur legatos ad consulem cum suppliciis mittit, qui tantummodo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, id. ib. 46, 2.

To receive punishment; hence, punishment, penalty, torture, torment, pain, distress, suffering (class. and freq.; usu. of the penalty of death; syn. poena). Sing.: dabitur pol supplicium mihi de tergo vestro, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 75 sq.; cf.: illi de me supplicium dabo, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 86; id. Eun. 1, 1, 24; Cat. 116, 8; Nep. Paus. 5, 5: de homine nobili virgis supplicium crudelissime sumere, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 37, § 91; 2, 5, 45, § 117: sumere (de aliquo), Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 72; id. Merc. 5, 4, 31; Ter. And. 3, 5, 17; Cic. Inv. 2, 28, 84; id. Rep. 3, 33, 45; Caes. B. G. 1, 39; Liv. 2, 5, 5; 3, 18, 10: aliquem hostibus ad supplicium dedere, Caes. B. G. 7, 26: aliquem tradi ad supplicium jubere, Tac. A. 11, 35: rapi, Cic. de Or. 2, 59, 138: supplicio affici, to be put to death, Caes. B. G. 1, 27: ne ad ultimum supplicium progredi necesse habeant, to take their own lives, id. B. C. 1, 84: aliquem vinculis ac verberibus atque omni supplicio excruciatum necare, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 11: summo cruciatu supplicioque perire, id. N. D. 3, 33, 81: gravissimum ei rei supplicium cum cruciatu constitutum est, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: talis improborum consensio supplicio omni vindicanda (est), Cic. Lael. 12, 43: satis supplicii tulisse, Caes. B. C. 1, 84: supplicio culpa reciditur, Hor. C. 3, 24, 34: suā manu supplicium persolvere, Tac. A. 6, 32 (26): luere, Just. 2, 5, 6; Tac. A. 15, 60: supplicium redimere opimā mercede, Amm. 26, 3, 4.

Plur.: ad exquisita supplicia proficisci, Cic. Off. 3, 27, 100: semper iis (improbis) ante oculos judicia et supplicia versentur, id. Rep. 3, 16, 26: ad innocentum supplicia descendunt, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: supplicia annua pendere, Plin. 29, 4, 14, § 57: subire, Cic. Ep. ad Brut. 1, 12, 1: suppliciis delicta coërcere, Hor. S. 1, 3, 79: subplicia in post futuros conposuit, Sall. H. 1, 41, 6 Dietsch: domant impios saeva supplicia, Sen. Herc. Fur. 749: supplicia haurire, Verg. A. 4, 383.