Close Window

Lewis : utrum

utrum, ūtrum, adv. uter. Introducing an alternative question (direct or indirect), with an beginning the second clause (v. an); in Engl. represented in direct questions simply by the tone of voice, and in indirect questions by whether. In a direct interrogation. With ne, Attached to the emphatic word of the first clause: utrum tu masne an femina es? Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 16: Ba. Simulato me amare. Pi. Utrum ego istoc jocon' assimulem, an serio, id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42: utrum studione id sibi habet an laudi putat Fore? Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 28: utrum igitur tandem perspicuisne dubia aperiuntur an dubiis perspicua tolluntur? Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67: utrum censes illum tuamne de se orationem libentius auditurum fuisse an meam? id. ib. 2, 19, 60.

With ne attached to utrum, utrumne ... an (poet. and post-Aug.): utrumne jussi persequemur otium ... An hunc laborem, etc. Hor. Epod. 1, 7: utrumne salvum eum nolet orator, an? etc., Quint. 12, 1, 40: utrumne igitur ego sum, Domiti, exemplo gravis an tu, qui, etc., Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 4.

With ne repeated in place of an (very rare): sed utrum terraene motus, sonitusne inferum Pervasit auris? Att. ap. Prisc. 6, p. 680 P. (Trag. Rel. v. 479 Rib.).

Without ne, utrum ... an (class.): utrum pro ancillā me habes, an pro filiā? Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 13: utrum hac me feriam, an ab laevā, latus? id. Cist. 3, 13: sed utrum nunc tu coelibem ted esse mavis liberum, an maritum servom, etc., id. Cas. 2, 4, 11: utrum pro dimidiā parte, an pro totā societate? Utrum pro me an pro me et pro te? Cic. Rosc. Com. 11, 32: utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est? id. Ac. 2, 29, 95; id. Tusc. 1, 25, 61.

In an indirect interrogation. With ne attached, To the emphatic word of the first clause: sed utrum strictimne attonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem Nescio, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 18: videndum'st primum utrum eae velintne an non velint, id. Most. 3, 1, 151: cum animo depugnat suo, Utrum itane esse ma. velit ... an ita potius, id. Trin. 2, 2, 26; id. Ps. 2, 4, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 1: de istac rogas Virgine? Py. Ita, utrum praedicemne an taceam? Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 53: ea res nunc in discrimine versatur, utrum possitne se parsimonia defendere, an, etc., Cic. Quint. 30, 92: videamus, utrum ea fortuitane sint an eo statu, quo, etc., id. N. D. 2, 34, 87; id. Phil. 2, 12, 30; cf.: est ... illa distinctio, utrum ... an ... et utrum illudne ... an, etc., id. Tusc. 4, 27, 59.

With ne attached to utrum; utrumne ... an (poet. and post-Aug.): nec quidquam differre utrumne in pulvere ... ludas opus, an meretricis amore Sollicitus plores, Hor. S. 2, 3, 251: utrumne Divitiis homines an sint virtute beati, id. ib. 2, 6, 73: in eo plures dissenserunt, utrumne hae partes essent rhetorices, an ejusdem opera, an elementa, Quint. 3, 3, 13: Dareus dubitaverat utrumne circa Mesopotamiam subsisteret, an interiora regna sui peteret, Curt. 4, 9, 1; Col. 11, 1, 50; Suet. Caes. 80; Tac. Or. 37.

With ne attached to an; utrum ... anne: me jussit percontarier utrum aurum reddat anne eat secum simul, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 1, 4: est quaerendumque utrum una species sit earum anne plures, Cic. Or. 61, 206: id autem utrum illi sentiant anne simulent, tu intelleges, id. Att. 12, 51, 2; cf. uter, I. B. 4, fin.— Without ne: quid tu, malum, curas, Utrum crudum an coctum edim, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 16: facite indicium, utrum hac an illac iter institerit, id. Cist. 4, 2, 11: utrum stultitiā facere ego hunc an malitiā Dicam, incertus sum, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 54: id utrum Romano more locutus sit, an, quomodo Stoici dicunt, postea videro, Cic. Fam. 7, 16, 3: permultum interest, utrum perturbatione aliquā animi, an consulto fiat injuria, id. Off. 1, 8, 27: quid interest utrum hoc feceris, an, etc., id. Verr. 2, 3, 75, § 174; id. Rosc. Com. 3, 9: multum interest, utrum laus imminuatur, an salus deseratur, id. Fam. 1, 7, 8: quomodo transierit, utrum rate an piscatorio navigio, nemo sciebat, Cael. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 41; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 8; Cat. 17, 21.

With necne (rarely ne) in place of the second clause with an; utrum ... necne, whether ... or not: jam dudum ego erro, qui quaeram, utrum emeris necne, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 16, § 35: di utrum sint necne sint quaeritur, id. N. D. 3, 7, 17: utrum proelium committi ex usu esset necne, Caes. B. G. 1, 50: deliberent, utrum traiciant legiones necne ... et Brutum arcessant necne, et mihi stipendium dent an decernant, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 26; Liv. 39, 48, 2.—So, utrum ... ne: cum interrogaretur, utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret? matrem inquit, Nep. Iphic. 3, 4.

Introducing a disjunctive question with more than two members, with an beginning each clause after the first. A direct question: utrum hoc tu parum commeministi, an ego non satis intellexi, an mutasti sententiam? Cic. Att. 9, 2: utrum hoc signum cupiditatis tuae an tropaeum necessitudinis an amoris indicium esse voluisti? id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115; 2, 3, 36, § 83: utrum hostem an vos an fortunam utriusque populi ignoratis? Liv. 21, 10, 6; 6, 7, 3: utrum major ... an majores ... an aetas ... an cum Karthaginiensi, etc., id. 28, 43, 12.

An indirect question: in quo (convivio) nemo potest dicere utrum ille plus biberit an vomuerit an effuderit, Cic. Pis. 10, 22: utrum admonitus an temptatus an sine duce ullo ... nescio, id. Verr. 2, 1, 41, § 105.

Introducing a single question without an expressed alternative (cf. the similar use of an). In a direct interrogation: utrum enim in clarissimis est civibus is, quem judicatum hic duxit Hermippus? Cic. Fl. 19, 45: utrum igitur hactenus satis est? id. Top. 4, 25: utrum majores vestri omnium magnarum rerum et principia exorti ab diis sunt et finem eum statuerunt? Liv. 45, 39, 10.

In an indirect interrogation: neque utrum ex hoc saltu damni salvum scio eliciam foras, Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 30: an hoc dicere audebis, utrum de te aratores, utrum denique Siculi universi bene existiment, ad rem id non pertinere? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 167: Nep. Eum. 6, 1.—With the interrog. particle nam: cum percontatus esset, utrumnam Patris universa classis in portu stare posset, Liv. 37, 17, 10 dub. Weissenb. ad loc. (Hertz and Madv. possetne).