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Lewis : bonum

bonum,³ bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen. Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus; nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.: quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum, id. Par. 1, 1, 9: ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi, id. Ac. 1, 2, 7: non-est igitur voluptas bonum, id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum ( τέλος ἀγαθῶν ) = summa bona et mala: sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc., id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.

Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally: quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat, Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9: multa bona vobis volt facere, will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32: tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus, id. Capt. 1, 2, 33: multa tibi di dent bona, id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47: omnia Bona dicere, to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70: sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget, Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88: cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur, id. ib. 5, 41, 120: nihil enim boni nosti, nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16: mala pro bonis legere dementia est, Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73: quia bonum sit valere, a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra): melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum, id. Lael. 6, 20: meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse, id. Or. 1, 10, 43: optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi, id. ib. 11, 36.

Here belongs the phrase boni consulere; v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire, to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere (poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632: ad melius transcurrere, to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.

Bonum or bona, prosperity: fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58: nulli est homini perpetuum bonum, id. Curc. 1, 3, 33: unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus, Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23: quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus), Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.

Good qualities, gifts: omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30: magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148: nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc., id. Cael. 5, 11: hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto, id. ib. 17, 39: non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum, id. Balb. 28, 63: gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono, id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.

Advantage, benefit: si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali, Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83: saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium, id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24: maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat, Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good: hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.

With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair (thing), fairness, equity: si bonum aequomque oras, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11: si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39: a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit, Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in (with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere: istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio, I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.

Bona, one's property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions. In gen.: paterna oportet reddi filio bona, Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120: bona sua med habiturum omnia, id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4: bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur, Cic. Sest. 24, 54: cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur, id. ib. 30, 65: bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium, id. Caecin. 13, 38: at mulctantur bonis exsules, id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.

Bonorum possessio, the possession of one's property by another. Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one's property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.

Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4: postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat, Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8: edixit ... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet, Liv. 2, 24, 6: bona proscribere, to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.

Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.

In bonis esse; with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est), Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10: neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur, ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1. Predicative use. With nouns or pronouns as subjects. Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest: nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82: bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo, id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29: itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus, Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1: Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat, Sall. C. 54, 5: ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia, Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations: jam istuc non bonumst, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157: oleum viridius et melius fiet, id. ib. 3: vinum ut alvum bonam faciat, to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156: quid est homini salute melius? Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127: non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma, id. Trin. 2, 3, 1: quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere? Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99: in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est, id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36: meliorem tamen militem... in futur ε ) With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant): sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror, Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16: optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere, Caes. B. G. 4, 30: optumum factu credens exercitum augere, Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum). Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full: di melius duint, Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16: di meliora velint! Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.: di meliora! inquit, Cic. Sen. 14, 47: id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc., Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513; similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt, Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3. With object expressed, By dat. = good, useful, beneficial for: ambula, id lieni optumum est, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25: quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi, Sall. C. 20, 3: bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc., Verg. G. 2, 447.

= benignus or propitius, kind to: vicinis bonus esto, Cato, R. R. 4: bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es, Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3: vos o mihi Manes, Este boni, Verg. A. 12, 647.

= idoneus, fit for, adapted to: qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse, Cato, R. R. 6: tum erit ei rei optumum tempus, id. ib. 26: terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis, Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.

With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him: accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit, Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13: bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat, Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is: quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc., Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35: cui bono fuisset, id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf. ellipt. form cui bono? Prisc. p. 1208 P.—( ε ) With dat. gerund: ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit, Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24: (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat, Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.

By ad and acc.: refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit, Varr. R. R. 1, 91: occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior, Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7: non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc., Tac. A. 2, 14.