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cado, cădo, cĕcĭdi, cāsum, 3 (part. pres. gen. plur. cadentūm, Verg. A. 10, 674; 12, 410), v. n. cf. Sanscr. çad-, to fall away. Lit. In an extended sense, to be driven or carried by one's weight from a higher to a lower point, to fall down, be precipitated, sink down, go down, sink, fall (so mostly poet.; in prose, in place of it, the compounds decĭdo, occĭdo, excĭdo, etc.; cf. also ruo, labor; opp. surgo, sto): tum arbores in te cadent, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 25: (aves) praecipites cadunt in terram aut in aquam, fall headlong to the earth or into the water, Lucr. 6, 745; cf. id. 6, 828; imitated by Verg.: (apes) praecipites cadunt, Verg. G. 4, 80: nimbus, Ut picis e caelo demissum flumen, in undas Sic cadit, etc., Lucr. 6, 258: cadit in terras vis flammea, id. 2, 215; so with in, id. 2, 209; 4, 1282; 6, 1006; 6, 1125; Prop. 4 (5), 4, 64: in patrios pedes, Ov. F. 2, 832.—With a different meaning: omnes plerumque cadunt in vulnus, in the direction of, towards their wound, Lucr. 4, 1049; cf.: prolapsa in vulnus moribunda cecidit, Liv. 1, 58, 11: cadit in vultus, Ov. M. 5, 292: in pectus, id. ib. 4, 579.—Less freq. with ad: ad terras, Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216: ad terram, Quint. 5, 10, 84.—The place from which is designated by ab, ex, de: a summo cadere, Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 15: a mento cadit manus, Ov. F. 3, 20: aves ab alto, Plin. 10, 38, 54, § 112: ut cadat (avis) e regione loci, Lucr. 6, 824: ex arbore, Plin. 17, 20, 34, § 148; Dig. 50, 16, 30, § 4; 18, 1, 80, § 2: cecidisse de equo dicitur, Cic. Clu. 62, 175: cadere de equo, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 125 (for which Cæsar, Nepos, and Pliny employ decidere): de manibus arma cecidissent, Cic. Phil. 14, 7, 21; cf.: de manibus civium delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt, id. Off. 1, 22, 77: cadunt altis de montibus umbrae, Verg. E. 1, 84: de caelo, Lucr. 5, 791; Ov. M. 2, 322: de matre (i. e. nasci), Claud. in Rufin. 1, 92.—With per: per inane profundum, Lucr. 2, 222: per aquas, id. 2, 230: per salebras altaque saxa, Mart. 11, 91; cf.: imbre per indignas usque cadente genas, Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 18.—With the adverb altius: altius atque cadant summotis nubibus imbres, and poured forth from a greater height, etc., Verg. E. 6, 38.—And absol.: folia nunc cadunt, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 24; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 12; Lucr. 6, 297: ut pluere in multis regionibus et cadere imbres, id. 6, 415: cadens nix, id. 3, 21; 3, 402: velut si prolapsus cecidisset, Liv. 1, 56, 12: quaeque ita concus sa est, ut jam casura putetur, Ov. P. 2, 3, 59: cadentem Sustinuisse, id. M. 8, 148: saepius, of epileptics, Plin. Val. 12, 58: casuri, si leviter excutiantur, flosculi, Quint. 12, 10, 73.

Esp. Of heavenly bodies, to decline, set (opp. orior), Ov. F. 1, 295: oceani finem juxta solemque cadentem, Verg. A. 4, 480; 8, 59; Tac. G. 45: soli subjecta cadenti arva, Avien. Descr. Orb. 273; cf. Tac. Agr. 12: quā (nocte) tristis Orion cadit, Hor. Epod. 10, 10: Arcturus cadens, id. C. 3, 1, 27.

To separate from something by falling, to fall off or away, fall out, to drop off, be shed, etc.: nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 57: dentes cadere imperat aetas, Lucr. 5, 671; Sen. Ep. 12, 3; 83, 3: pueri qui primus ceciderit dens, Plin. 28, 4, 9, § 41: barba, Verg. E. 1, 29: quam multa in silvis autumni frigore primo Lapsa cadunt folia, id. A. 6, 310; cf. Cat. 11, 22; Hor. A. P. 61: lanigeris gregibus Sponte suā lanae cadunt, Ov. M. 7, 541: saetae, id. ib. 14, 303: quadrupedibus pilum cadere, Plin. 11, 39, 94, § 231: poma, Ov. M. 7, 586: cecidere manu quas legerat, herbae, id. ib. 14, 350: elapsae manibus cecidere tabellae, id. ib. 9, 571: et colus et fusus digitis cecidere remissis, id. ib. 4, 229.

Of a stream, to fall, empty itself: amnis Aretho cadit in sinum maris, Liv. 38, 4, 3; 38, 13, 6; 44, 31, 4: flumina in pontum cadent, Sen. Med. 406: flumina in Hebrum cadentia, Plin. 4, 11, 18, § 50: tandem in alterum amnem cadit, Curt. 6, 4, 6.

Of dice, to be thrown or cast; to turn up: illud, quod cecidit forte, Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 23 sq.; Liv. 2, 12, 16.

Alicui (alicujus) ad pedes, to fall at one's feet in supplication, etc. (post-class. for abicio, proicio), Sen. Contr. 1, 1, 19; Eutr. 4, 7; Aug. Serm. 143, 4; Vulg. Joan. 11, 32 al.

Super collum allcujus, to embrace (late Lat.), Vulg. Luc. 15, 20.

In a more restricted sense. To fall, to fall down, drop, fall to, be precipitated, etc.; to sink down, to sink, settle (the usual class. signif. in prose and poetry): cadere in plano, Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 17 sq.: deorsum, Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 89: uspiam, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 12: Brutus, velut si prolapsus cecidisset, Liv. 1, 56, 12; cf. id. 5, 21, 16; 1, 58, 12: dum timent, ne aliquando cadant, semper jacent, Quint. 8, 5, 32: sinistrā manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit (Caesar), quo honestius caderet, Suet. Caes. 82: cadere supinus, id. Aug. 43 fin.: in pectus pronus, Ov. M. 4, 579: cadunt toti montes, Lucr. 6, 546: radicitus exturbata (pinus) prona cadit, Cat. 64, 109: concussae cadunt urbes, Lucr. 5, 1236: casura moenia Troum, Ov. M. 13, 375; id. H. 13, 71: multaque praeterea ceciderunt moenia magnis motibus in terris, Lucr. 6, 588: languescunt omnia membra; bracchia palpebraeque cadunt, their arms and eyelids fall, id. 4, 953; 3, 596; so, ceciderunt artus, id. 3, 453: sed tibi tamen oculi, voltus, verba cecidissent, Cic. Dom. 52, 133; cf.: oculos vigiliā fatigatos cadentesque in opere detineo, Sen. Ep. 8, 1: patriae cecidere manus, Verg. A. 6, 33: cur facunda parum decoro Inter verba cadit lingua silentio? Hor. C. 4, 1, 36: cecidere illis animique manusque, Ov. M. 7, 347; Val. Fl. 1, 300; cf. II. F. infra.

In a pregn. signif. (as in most langg., to fall in battle, to die), to fall so as to be unable to rise, to fall dead, to fall, die (opp. vivere), Prop. 2 (3), 28, 42 (usu. of those who die in battle; hence most freq. in the histt.): hostes crebri cadunt, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 79 sq.: aut in acie cadendum fuit aut in aliquas insidias incidendum, Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 3; Curt. 4, 1, 28; Ov. M. 7, 142: ut cum dignitate potius cadamus quam cum ignominiā serviamus, Cic. Phil. 3, 14, 35: pauci de nostris cadunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 15; id. B. C. 3, 53: optimus quisque cadere aut sauciari, Sall. J. 92, 8; so id. C. 60, 6; id. J. 54, 10; Nep. Paus. 1, 2; id. Thras. 2, 7; id. Dat. 1, 2; 6, 1; 8, 3; Liv. 10, 35, 15 and 19; 21, 7, 10; 23, 21, 7; 29, 14, 8; Tac. G. 33; Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 27; Ov. M. 7, 142: per acies, Tac. A. 1, 2: pro patriā, Quint. 2, 15, 29: ante diem, Verg. A. 4, 620: bipenni, Ov. M. 12, 611: ense, Val. Fl. 1, 812.—Not in battle: inque pio cadit officio, Ov. M. 6, 250.—With abl. of means or instrument: suoque Marte (i. e. suā manu) cadunt, Ov. M. 3, 123; cf. Tac. A. 3, 42 fin.: suā manu cecidit, fell by his own hand, id. ib. 15, 71: exitu voluntario, id. H. 1, 40: muliebri fraude cadere, id. A. 2, 71: cecidere justā Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae Flamma Chimaerae, Hor. C. 4, 2, 14 sq.: manu femineā, Sen. Herc. Oet. 1179: femineo Marte, Ov. M. 12, 610.—With abl. of agent with ab: torqueor, infesto ne vir ab hoste cadat, should be slain by, Ov. H. 9, 36; so id. M. 5, 192; Suet. Oth. 5: a centurione volneribus adversis tamquam in pugnā, Tac. A. 16, 9.—And without ab: barbarae postquam cecidere turmae Thessalo victore, Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; imitated by Claudian, IV. Cons. Hon. 89; Grat. Cyn. 315.

Of victims, to be slain or offered, to be sacrificed, to fall (poet.): multa tibi ante aras nostrā cadet hostia dextrā, Verg. A. 1, 334: si tener pleno cadit haedus anno, Hor. C. 3, 18, 5; Tib. 1, 1, 23; 4, μεταβάλλει ), Cic. Rep. 1, 44, 68.—Esp.: in (ad) irritum or cassum, to be frustrated, fail, be or remain fruitless: omnia in cassum cadunt, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 147; Lucr. 2, 1166: ad irritum cadens spes, Liv. 2, 6, 1; so Tac. H. 3, 26: in irritum, id. A. 15, 39; cf. with irritus, adj.: ut irrita promissa ejus caderent, Liv. 2, 31, 5: haud irritae cecidere minae, id. 6, 35, 10.

To fall, to become less (in strength, power, worth, etc.), to decrease, diminish, lessen: cadunt vires, Lucr. 5, 410: mercenarii milites pretia militiae casura in pace aegre ferebant, Liv. 34, 36, 7.—More freq. in an extended signif. (acc. to I. B. 2.), To lose all one's strength, worth, value, etc., to fall, to perish, vanish, decay, cease. In gen.: pellis item cecidit, vestis contempta ferina. declined in value, Lucr. 5, 1417: turpius est enim privatim cadere (i. e. fortunis everti) quam publice, Cic. Att. 16, 15, 6; so id. Fam. 6, 10, 2: atque ea quidem tua laus pariter cum re publicā cecidit, id. Off. 2, 13, 45: tanta civitas, si cadet, id. Har. Resp. 20, 42: huc cecidisse Germanici exercitus gloriam, ut, etc., Tac. H. 3, 13: non tibi ingredienti fines ira cecidit? Liv. 2, 40, 7; Pers. 5, 91: amicitia nec debilitari animos aut cadere patitur, Cic. Lael. 7, 23: animus, to fail, Liv. 1, 11, 3; Ov. M. 11, 537; cf. id. ib. 7, 347: non debemus ita cadere animis, etc., to lose courage, be disheartened, Cic. Fam. 6, 1, 4: tam graviter, id. Off. 1, 21, 73; cf. Sen. Ep. 8, 3.—Esp., to fail in speaking: magnus orator est... minimeque in lubrico versabitur, et si semel constiterit numquam cadet, Cic. Or. 28, 98: alte enim cadere non potest, id. ib. —So in the lang. of the jurists, causā or formulā, to lose one's cause or suit: causā cadere, Cic. Inv. 2, 19, 57; so id. de Or. 1, 36, 166 sq.; id. Fam. 7, 14, 1; Quint. 7, 3, 17; Luc. 2, 554; Suet. Calig. 39: formulā cadere, Sen. Ep. 48, 10; Quint. 3, 6, 69.—With in: ita quemquam cadere in judicio, ut, etc., Cic. Mur. 28, 58.—Also absol.: cadere, Tac. H. 4, 6; and: criminibus repetundarum, id. ib. 1, 77: conjurationis crimine, id. A. 6, 14: ut cecidit Fortuna Phrygum, Ov. M. 13, 435: omniaque ingrato litore vota cadunt, i. e. irrita sunt, remain unfulfilled, unaccomplished, Prop. 1, 17, 4 (diff. from Tib. 2, 2, 17; v. above, D. 2.); cf.: at mea nocturno verba cadunt zephyro, Prop. 1, 16, 34: multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, to fall into disuse, grow out of date, Hor. A. P. 70 —Hence of theatrical representations, to fall through, to fail, be condemned (opp. stare, to win applause; the fig. derived from combatants): securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 176.—Impers.. periculum est, ne cadatur, Aug. Don. Persev. 1.

Esp. of the wind (opp. surgo), to abate, subside, die away, etc.: cadit Eurus et umida surgunt Nubila, Ov. M. 8, 2: ventus premente nebulā cecidit, Liv. 29, 27, 10: cadente jam Euro, id. 25, 27, 11: venti vis omnis cecidit, id. 26, 39, 8: ubi primum aquilones ceciderunt, id. 36, 43, 11; cf.: sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, Verg. A. 1, 154: ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae, id. E. 9, 58; id. G. 1, 354 Serv. and Wagn.

Rhet. and gram. t. t. of words, syllables, clauses, etc., to be terminated, end, close: verba melius in syllabas longiores cadunt, Cic. Or. 57, 194; 67, 223: qua (littera sc. m) nullum Graece verbum cadit, Quint. 12, 10, 31: plerique censent cadere tantum numerose oportere terminarique sententiam, Cic. Or. 59, 199; so id. Brut. 8, 34: apto cadens oratio, Quint. 9, 4, 32: numerus opportune cadens, id. 9, 4, 27: ultima syllaba in gravem vel duas graves cadit semper, id. 12, 10, 33 Spald.: similiter cadentia = όμοιόπτωτα, the ending of words with the same cases or verbal forms, diff. from similiter desinentia = όμοιοτέλευτα, similar endings of any kind, Cic. de Or. 3, 54, 206; id. Or. 34, 135; Auct. Her. 4, 20, 28; Quint. 9, 4, 42; cf. id. 9, 4, 18; 9, 3, 78; 9, 3, 79; 1, 7, 23; Aquil. Rom. Figur. §§ 25 and 26.