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Lewis : casus

casus cāsus (Ciceronis temporibus paulumque infra s geminabatur: cassus, etc., Quint. 1, 7, 20; cf.: causa, Juppiter al.; in inscr. also KASVS), ūs (dat. casu, Nep. Alcib. 6, 4), m. cado. Lit., a falling (acc. to cado, I. A. and C.). A falling down, etc.: stillicidi, Lucr. 1, 313: geli, id. 5, 205: nivis, Liv. 21, 35, 6: fulminum, Plin. 2, 50, 51, § 135; Ov. M. 8, 259: celsae graviore casu Decidunt turres, Hor. C. 2, 10, 10.—In plur., Lucr. 2, 231.

A fall, an overthrow, a throwing down: occumbunt multi letum praecipe casu, Enn. Ann. 391 Vahl.: eoque ictu me ad casum dari, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 44: casus, quo (infantes) in terram toties deferuntur, Quint. 1, 12, 10; Lucr. 5, 1333: vehiculi, Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 21 al.—In plur.: cum loci Inciperent casus, i. e. the fall, destruction (by an earthquake), Ov. M. 8, 714.

Trop. Of time, the end: extremae sub casum hiemis, Verg. G. 1, 340.

A moral fall, a false step, an error, fall: multas vias adulescentiae lubricas ostendit (natura), quibus illa insistere, aut ingredi sine casu aliquo ac prolapsione vix posset, Cic. Cael. 17, 41.—So of a political fall, Cic. Sest. 67, 140.

Esp., a fall or change from a higher to a lower condition: secum reputans quam gravis casus in servitium ex regno foret, Sall. J. 62, 9.

That which turns out or happens unexpectedly, an occurrence, event, accident, chance, misfortune, emergency (this most freq. in sing. and plur.): quid est enim aliud fors, quid fortuna, quid casus, quid eventus, nisi cum sic aliquid cecidit, sic evenit, ut vel non cadere atque evenire, vel aliter cadere atque evenire potuerit? etc., Cic. Div. 2, 6, 15: quis iste tantus casus? unde tam felix concursus atomorum? cf. id. N. D. 1, 32, 90: novi casus temporum, id. Imp. Pomp. 20, 60: quod consilium etsi in ejusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit, such an emergency, Caes. B. G. 5, 33: quod in ejusmodi casu accidit, periti ignaris parebant, Curt. 4, 3, 18; 10, 5, 8; Quint. 6, 2, 34; Tac. A. 2, 47; Liv. 24, 2, 11; 38, 8, 5: potest igitur veritatem casus imitari, Cic. Div. 2, 21, 49: quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne deusne, Attulerit, Verg. A. 12, 321: sive illud deorum munus sive casus fuit, Curt. 4, 7, 13: quae casus obtulerat, in sapientiam vertenda ratus, Tac. A. 1, 29: ut quemque casus armaverat, Sall. C. 56, 3: si quos locus aut casus conjunxerat, id. J. 97 fin.: in aleam tanti casus se regnumque dare, Liv. 42, 50, 2: ludibrium casūs, id. 30, 30, 5: casum potius quam consilium sequatur, Quint. 7, prooem. § 3: parata ad omnes casus eloquentia, id. 10, 1, 2: bellorum, Tac. A. 1, 61: satis jam eventuum, satis casuum, id. ib. 2, 26: adversi, secundi, Nep. Dat. 5, 4; cf. Suet. Caes. 25; id. Oth. 9: magnus, Caes. B. G. 6, 30; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 3: mirificus, Cic. Fam. 7, 5, 2: mirabiles, Nep. Timol. 5, 1: rariores, Cic. Off. 2, 6, 19: dubii, Cat. 64, 216; Hor. S. 2, 2, 108: varii, Verg. A. 1, 204: subiti repentinique, Suet. Aug. 73.—Hence, in abl.: casu, adverbially, by chance, casually, by accident, accidentally: quod si haec habent aliquam talem necessitatem, quid est tandem, quod casu fieri aut forte fortunā putemus? Cic. Div. 2, 7, 18: id evenit non temere nec casu, id. N. D. 2, 2, 6: sive casu sive consilio deorum, Caes. B. G. 1, 12; cf. Suet. Claud. 13: necessitate an casu, Quint. 3, 6, 26: casu an persuasu et inductu, id. 5, 10, 69: casu an manibus impeditus, Tac. A. 1, 13: accidit casu ut legati, etc., Nep. Hann. 12, 1; cf. Hor. S. 1, 6, 53; 1, 9, 36; id. Ep. 1, 19, 18; Ov. M. 5, 118; 6, 359; 7, 84 et saep.—Hence, also, A chance, an occasion, opportunity for something (esp. freq. in Sall. and Tac.): aetas illa multo pluris quam nostra casus mortis habet, Cic. Sen. 19, 67; cf.: mortis durae casus, Verg. A. 10, 791: aut vi aut dolis sese casum victoriae inventurum, Sall. J. 25, 9: praeclari facinoris casum dare, id. ib. 56, 4; so, si casus daretur, Tac. A. 1, 13; 11, 9: invadendae Armeniae, id. ib. 12, 50: pugnae, id. ib. 12, 28: bene gerendae rei, id. ib. 13, 36: casum adferre, Quint. 8, 4, 17.

Since the idea of suddenness, unexpectedness, easily passes into that of hostility, adverseness (cf. accido, 4.), casus signifies, Esp., an adverse event, a misfortune, mishap, calamity, = συμφορά : meum illum casum tam horribilem, tam gravem, tam repentinum, Cic. Sest. 24, 53; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2; Caes. B. G. 7, 1, 4: dolens civitatis casum, Sall. C. 40, 2; cf. id. J. 14, 22; 23, 2; Liv. 37, 17, 7; 23, 22, 3; Cat. 28, 11.—Of disease: si alius casus lecto te adfixit, Hor. S. 1, 1, 81; Ov. M. 4, 142; 14, 473; 15, 494: res minime in hujusmodi casu noxia, in the earthquake, Sen. Q. N. 6, 21, 2; id. Cons. ad Marc. 5, 3: urbis Trojanae, overthrow, Verg. A. 1, 623.—Hence, Euphemist. for death: Saturnini atque Gracchorum casus, Caes. B. C. 1, 7: sui quemque casus per quinquennium absumpsissent, Liv. 23, 22, 3; Sall. J. 73, 1; Hor. S. 2, 5, 49; Suet. Aug. 65; cf. id. Caes. 89; id. Calig. 10.

In gram. t. t., a case in the inflection of words: propter eorum qui dicunt, sunt declinati casus, uti is qui de altero diceret, distinguere posset, quom vocaret, etc., Varr. L. L. 8, § 16 Müll.: casus dicimus... et vocabulorum formas, Paul. ex Fest. p. 58, 11 ib.: ea (verba) sic et casibus et temporibus et genere et numero conservemus, ut, etc., Cic. de Or. 3, 11, 40: barbari casus... casus rectus, id. Or. 48, 160; Quint. 1, 5, 61: obliqui, id. 1, 6, 22: nominativo, dativo, ablativo, id. 7, 9, 13: genitivo, id. 1, 5, 62: Latinus, sextus, i. e. the ablative, Varr. ap. Diom. p. 277 P.: conversi, i. e. obliqui, Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64: interrogandi (i. e. genetivus), Nigid. ap. Gell. 13, 26 Hertz: vocandi, id. ib.: septimus, Quint. 1, 4, 26.